Von Bock Fyodor is a Field Marshal and a legendary German military commander, who got into world history for his military merits. During the offensive on the territory of the Soviet Union, Bock ran an entire army group called "Center." In addition, the general directed the offensive against Moscow. Do you want to know more about this historical person? Welcome to this article!
Fedor von Bock. Biography
The future general was born on December 3, 1880 in the city of Küstrin, which belonged to the German Empire (currently Poland). The boy grew up in the family of a German officer named Moritz von Bock. Fedor's mother Olga had not only German, but also Russian roots. That's why Bock has a Russian name. And Fedor's brother served in Berlin as a naval adviser to the Russian emperor. In general, the genus von Bokov could be divided into two main branches: the Prussian and the Baltic. Relatives along the Baltic line were members of the aristocracy with Russian roots.
In 1898, when Bok received a cadet education, Fyodor was appointed to the Guards Regiment as a lieutenant. The young man quickly rose up the career ladder. Already in 1904 he received the rank of battalion adjutant, and in 1906 - regimental. Throughout 1910-1912. Studied at the Academy of the General Staff. After graduating from the service, Fedor with the captain's rank was sent to the General Staff. In 1913 von Bock received the title of chief quartermaster in the Guards Corps.
World War I
In September 1914 von Bock Fyodor was in the headquarters of the Guards Corps. There he received the title of Chief of Operations. At the same time, he was awarded for his services by the Iron Cross of the second class, and in October, Fedor received the Iron Cross of the first class. Throughout 1916-1917 years. Fedor served in the division headquarters as the chief of the operational department. In the same period he received the rank of major. In the course of the war, in addition to the Iron Crosses, von Bock Fyodor received a dozen more orders. In April 1918, the major took part in the offensive on Picardy. Thanks to this, he was awarded the most prestigious Prussian order called Pour le Mérite, also known as the "Blue Max".
Between World Wars in the Weimar Republic there was a significant reduction in the military forces of Germany. The reason for this was the so-called Treaty of Versailles. Nevertheless, von Bock managed to maintain his position and stay in the Reichswehr. For several years he continued to serve at the headquarters in various positions. Later, he received the title of chief of the district headquarters, and later became head of the infantry battalion. After some time, while in the rank of colonel, Fedor was promoted to the commander of an infantry regiment. Soon von Bock received another increase - he became a major-general. In addition, Fedor was appointed commander in one of the cavalry divisions.
In 1933, power in the country is in the hands of the Nazis. Von Bock Fyodor retains a neutral attitude to the new regime. Already in 1935 he was appointed commander in the third army group. Soon von Bock decides to settle down. In 1936, a major-general starts a family, soon his daughter is born. Nevertheless, military service did not release Fedor. Already on March 12, 1938, he commanded the eighth army during the Anschluss. After that, Bok received the next rank - he became a colonel-general.
The Second World War
During the invasion of Poland by the German army, Bock led an army called "North." Thanks to this, on September 30, 1939, the collection of Feodor 's rewards was replenished with the Knight's Cross. A year later, Bock leads a whole group of armies, "B", occupying Belgium and the Netherlands. In the same year after the occupation of Paris by German troops, Fedor takes part in the Wehrmacht parade, which took place at the Arc de Triomphe. July 19 Bock receives a new title - Field Marshal General.
Invasion of the Soviet Union
When German troops entered the territory of the Soviet Union, von Bock receives at his disposal an army group called "Center." The main task of this group was the seizure of Moscow. The "center" possessed the most powerful tank groups of Guderian and Goth.
General Fedor von Bock was an adherent of worthy treatment to the occupied population. He was sure that otherwise the level of discipline in the ranks of the army would drop significantly. Based on Fedor's diary entries, it can be concluded that he considered the Soviet Union to be an openly weak opponent. And the general accepted the Slavic peoples as uncultured, uneducated "aborigines". In this regard, he did not have any contradictions with Himmler or Hitler. It is also known that Fedor received an offer to commit an attempt on the Führer. However, Bock refused such a venture.
During the winter crisis (winter of 1941), Fyodor critically speaks about the situation at the front at the time. Bok's comments aroused discontent from the Fuhrer. Hitler was convinced that the German generals and General Fyodor in particular became the reason for the failure of the Moscow offensive and Operation Barbarossa in general. Soon, because of the failure on the front, von Bock is removed from the leadership of the "North" (if you believe the documents, then for health reasons). However, after the death of General Reichenau, the General was given the "South" group.
There were again disagreements between Bock and Hitler. The general criticized the fragmentation of the army "South" in two directions. For sharp criticism, Fyodor was again removed and sent to the personal reserve of the Fuhrer.
After the displacement of the Nazi regime
Von Bock Fyodor was painfully worried about his resignation. During the years 1942-1945. He lived in Prussia in his own estate. The former general was critical of Operation Citadel. In 1945, von Bock, along with his wife, drove by car along the Kiel highway. The car got under fire, as a result of which Fedor was killed in the hospital the next day.
Fedor von Bock. Memoirs
During the Second World War, many military leaders conducted personal diaries, which described in detail the situation at the front. Was not an exception and Fedor von Bock. "I stood at the gates of Moscow" was published in 2011 in Russia. The book is based on Boca's military diary. Translated by A. Kashin.