News and SocietyEconomy

Economic phenomena do not apply ... Types of economic phenomena

The term "economy" is rooted in Ancient Greece and is a combination of the two roots "oikos" and "nomos". The first is translated from Greek as a house or a farm, and the second is a law. Consequently, economics is a set of laws, rules, norms of housekeeping. Interpretation of this concept for more than two millennia has changed enough and enriched.

Modern interpretations of the concept under consideration

First, economics is a self-management (a collection of objects, means, things, substances of the spiritual and material world that are used by man to provide the appropriate conditions for his life and meet existing needs).

This interpretation of the term in question is its perception as a created and applied life support system, as well as the maintenance and improvement of the conditions for the existence of the human race.

Secondly, economics is a science (a set of knowledge about the economy and its associated human activities) about the rational use of various, usually limited, resources to meet the vital needs of a single individual and the society as a whole; About relations between people arising in the process of management.

Economics as a science and as a self-economy is terminologically delimited by the introduction of two etymologically related concepts - "economics" and "economics". The first is the economy itself (the economy in its natural manifestation), and the second is the economic science - the economic theory. This division contributes to a clearer understanding of the concept under consideration.

It is generally accepted that economics as a science was first interpreted by the outstanding philosopher of antiquity, Socrates (470-390 BC). Unfortunately, he preached mostly in squares and streets, so there was no written confirmation of this. After the death of the philosopher, his work was continued by the closest disciples - Plato and Xenophon. They told humanity what Socrates was working on.

It should be clarified that the direct use of the term "economics" in Russian is considered to be incorrect, therefore it is replaced by the term "economic theory".

From the point of view of the objective perception of the concept under consideration (as an economic system and the totality of knowledge about it), individual authors also single out the third meaning of the economy: the relationships of people arising in the process of production, then distribution, then exchange, and finally, consumption of goods and services.

Thus, the economy is the economy, the science of it, and also about the management and relations between people in its process.

Interpretation of the concepts "economic phenomena and processes"

These are the results of simultaneous influence of a large number of economic reasons. Economic phenomena and processes are constantly born, evolve and destroy (are in continuous motion). This is their so-called dialectic. An example of such phenomena and processes can serve: exchange of goods, bankruptcy, finance, marketing, etc. But political marketing does not apply to economic phenomena.

The economic process is the stage of the evolution of material production, as well as of its productive forces (direct manufacturers, their skills, knowledge, skills, equipment, etc.) and the production relations that are formed on their basis, including the relationship between ownership of the available means of production (private, cooperative, State, etc.), the exchange of activities on the basis of the division of labor and relationships in the process of distribution of existing material wealth.

Within the economic processes, two specific layers of human relationships can be identified: the first - the surface (visible visually), and the second - the inner (hidden from observation). The study of visually visible economic relations is accessible to everyone, therefore from the very childhood a typical economic thinking is formed in a person, based on real knowledge of the mechanism of management. This kind of thinking is most often subjective. It is limited to a particular person's horizons and is often based on partial and unilateral data.

Economic theory tends to reveal the inner content and how some economic phenomena are interrelated with others (their cause-and-effect relationship).

Classification of the processes under consideration

Socio-economic phenomena are divided into the corresponding types, as well as types, based on criteria such as the social nature and interests of the society, the nature of their implementation in a particular society. This division is conditional, but it helps to present their internal content and a number of features of their functioning.

Types of economic phenomena can be subdivided, proceeding from the following directions:

1. The nature of social actors allows us to distinguish three categories of economic processes and phenomena:

  • Class character (the main subjects and the driving force are the corresponding classes);
  • National character (the main driving force - the nation);
  • National character (subjects - social groups and strata of the population of the corresponding country).

2. Features of their content include the following socio-economic phenomena and processes:

  • Concerning the solution of the common problems of the scientific and technological revolution;
  • Regarding the solution of specific problems concerning the functioning of banking and industrial capital;
  • In the field of solving problems of interethnic relations;
  • Concerning the solution of the problems of civil rights and freedoms.

3. The scope and depth of their action distinguishes the following economic processes and phenomena:

  • International and domestic;
  • Local and large-scale, etc.

Socio-economic phenomena can also be divided into: destructive and creative, transitional and stable.

In the economy, most processes are interrelated. An important point is not only the identification of the fact of the interconnection of economic processes and phenomena, but also their forecasting and effective management by giving mathematical quantitative certainty. This is the job of statistics. At the same time, one group of indicators acts as factors (causes), causing the dynamics of another set of indicators, which are called as productive.

These relationships are classified based on the nature, dependence and method of studying the relationship. Economic phenomena do not include: the electrification of bodies, the decay of the nucleus, the solar bunny, snowfall, etc.

Methodology of economics

This science is about methods of cognition and research of the economic aspect of economic phenomena. It is customary to single out general and particular methods of cognition of economic phenomena.

In turn, the first include the following methods:

  1. Materialistic dialectics (all processes and phenomena are analyzed in continuous dynamics, constant development and close interconnection).
  2. Scientific abstraction (mandatory identification of significant features of the phenomena and processes studied, excluding secondary).
  3. Unity of historical and logical cognition (consideration of society from the point of view of historical sequence in addition to the logical method of research, revealing the sequence of the emergence and evolution of economic laws and categories).

Particular methods of studying economic phenomena include:

  1. Economic-mathematical (definition of qualitative and quantitative characteristics of these phenomena and obtaining from the many variations of the most acceptable solution to the economic problem).
  2. The method of analysis and synthesis (complex economic phenomena are divided into the simplest components, which are subsequently subjected to detailed analysis, as a result of which the interrelations of the whole system as a whole are established on the basis of generalization of separately taken parts).
  3. Method of graphic representation (visual representation of the ratios of various economic indicators under the influence of a dynamic economic situation).
  4. The method of social practice (a process in which economic phenomena are first carefully studied, and then the scientific justification obtained in the course of this research is confirmed or denied by public practice).
  5. The method of induction and deduction (transition from private to general conclusions, and vice versa).

Economic analysis

It is a systematized set of methods, techniques and methods that are used to obtain economic conclusions about a particular business entity.

Economic analysis is a system of specialized knowledge in the following areas:

  1. Analysis of economic phenomena, as well as of processes related to their causal relationship between themselves, which are formed under the influence of subjective economic factors and objective laws.
  2. Scientific substantiation of business plans.
  3. Identify negative and positive factors, as well as quantify their actions.
  4. Disclosure of trends in economic development and determination of the degree of non-use of on-farm reserves.
  5. Adopt optimal and adequate management decisions.

Analysis of economic phenomena includes important points: establishing the relationship, interdependence and interdependence of factors and causes.

Unemployment as an example of an economic phenomenon

Its main reason is the change in the entrepreneurial demand regarding the constantly changing under the influence of the amount of accumulated labor capital.

Unemployment is an economic phenomenon within the framework of the market form of activity associated with production, which manifests itself in the fact that the economically active population does not have any work and stable earnings for reasons beyond its control.

The causes of the economic phenomenon under consideration

They can be classified, starting from the point of view of various economic doctrines:

  • Malthusianism (the main cause of unemployment is an excess of population);
  • Technological theory (any technical innovation "pushes" workers out of the production process);
  • Keynesianism (lack of aggregate (effective) demand for goods and factors of production);
  • Monetarism (according to its representative F. Hayek, the reason for this economic phenomenon is the deviation of earnings and equilibrium prices from their stable level and the state of orderliness of the market, which results in the emergence of an economically unjustified allocation of labor resources, which in turn leads to a state of imbalance in demand And labor supply);
  • Marxist theory ("relative overpopulation", which, in turn, is caused by an increase in the scale of the organic structure of capital in the course of its accumulation, and therefore (within the exclusively capitalist mode of production) there is a relative decrease in the demand for labor).

In all the above theories, the causality of an economic phenomenon, such as unemployment, is correctly noted. If we summarize them, we can get a fairly objective universal definition of the cause of its formation: a lack of aggregate demand for both goods and production factors, subject to an increase in the organic structure of capital.

Property as an economic phenomenon

Initially, it acted as a relation between representatives of the human race regarding the use of spiritual and material goods, as well as the conditions for their creation, or as a historically established social way of alienating the good.

Property as an economic relation emerges at the time of the formation of the human society.

On the process of monopolization of property, if you can so say, all forms of economic and non-economic coercion to work are held. Thus, the ancient way of production was associated with noneconomic coercion, backed by the ownership of the slave, Asian - ownership of the land, under feudalism - ownership of both the person and the land.

Economic coercion to labor activity is based on property directly on the conditions of production or on ownership of capital.

This economic phenomenon is a very complex and rather multidimensional education. Historically, it is known that property has two forms: general and particular. Their difference in the nature, forms and methods of appropriation, the level of socialization. Between them there is quite a complex interaction.

First, they have a common essential principle, and they, as a rule, are correlated as principal differences (their difference can not be brought to the perfect opposite). In this regard, private property can be transformed into a common, and vice versa. Secondly, the economic phenomenon under consideration, reflecting the profound processes of the economic side of the life of the society, can not but change.

Variety of basic forms of ownership

Private property is divided into the following types:

  • Single (individual);
  • Joint (divisible and indivisible);
  • The general;
  • Brought to the scale of an association or state, or a transnational monopoly.

The content of the common property is based on the size of the community and its status. It can be both at the stage of the family (household), and at the level of the community or association, or the state, or society (people).

Economic phenomena, examples of which were given earlier (unemployment and property), are not single. Here you can also include inflation, deflation, economic growth, globalization, all types of activities, etc. For example, such procedures as elections are not relevant to economic phenomena. Any physical or chemical phenomenon or process (melting of ice, evaporation, electrolysis, etc.) is not economic.

In the economy, there are economic phenomena that are considered to be the simplest, arising earlier than others and making a base for the emergence of more complex ones. An example is the exchange of goods.

The central method of economics

He is modeling economic phenomena - their description through a formalized language using mathematical algorithms and corresponding symbols to identify the functional relationships between these phenomena or processes. Here we mean the idealization of an object.

The peculiarity is that, within the framework of theoretical research, the selection of such a concept as an ideal object that does not exist in reality, however, is the basis for constructing the theory. In the process of constructing such objects, the researcher essentially simplifies reality, he consciously abstracts from the inherent properties in reality or empowers them with virtual features. This makes it possible to see the analyzed connections more clearly and to present them primarily in a mathematical aspect.

In accordance with the existing methodology, if there is a need to explain the phenomenon, then a mathematical model is constructed that reflects its main features. Then follows the conclusions, interpreted as a justification for the observed facts, or as statements that do not contradict the economic situation.

The next stage is the collection of empirical data for the subsequent approbation of the model. Under the condition that after obtaining numerical results acceptable results, such a model can be considered that the theoretical result has been empirically confirmed.

Limitations of the methodology in question

It is expressed in the fact that the underlying mathematical model is equipped with a limit of complexity. In essence, only one of the most important factors is snatched and described. Complication leads to difficulties in the practical application of the resulting mathematical assertion.

Another important drawback is the fact that all assumptions put forward in mathematics without exception can be verified in a formal way. This indicates the possibility of constructing a useless, inefficient, or even deliberately false model.

Mathematical thinking is analytical thinking. It breaks up the phenomenon into its component parts, which may result in inadequacy in relation to the expression of reality, especially with regard to social phenomena. The so-called formality of mathematics prevents the expression of the specifics of economic relations in society.

Economy of the country in 2015

According to Ksenia Yudaeva, the deputy chairman of the Central Bank, today the economic situation in our country is very complicated: the peak of inflation (the current figure is 8.9%) will be in the first quarter of this year (may reach 10%), while it will take food products Even higher values (about 12%). According to her, despite the fact that the weakening of the ruble against the dollar amounted to approximately 40%, and to the euro - 20-30%, the inflation rate will not take on equivalent values, as today there is a switching of demand from imported products to domestic, which is increasing In the price much slower.

OPEC's decision to keep the quota for oil production literally forced the Central Bank to consider a new scenario, according to which the country's economy will develop further (in the case of a medium-term decline in the price of oil to the value of $ 60 per barrel). In the opinion of the same K. Yudaeva, in this situation there will be a large-scale restructuring of the Russian economy, coupled with import substitution and its diversification.

Daria Zhelannova (deputy director of the analytical department Alpari) also believes that the highest inflation rate and a significant weakening of the ruble will be observed by the end of winter 2015. She advises not to burden yourself with loans and not to buy foreign currency for at least six months. D. Zhelannova suggests that it is best to just wait for this period.

So, at last it is worth repeating once again that economic phenomena (examples: unemployment, property, corruption, inflation, etc.) are formed under the influence of a large number of certain economic reasons. As for economic processes, here it is a question of any process that affects the production, exchange and consumption of material goods.

It is worth remembering that the election procedure does not apply to economic phenomena, as well as any chemical reaction or physical process.

Similar articles





Trending Now






Copyright © 2018 Theme powered by WordPress.