7 ancient wonders of the world represent the most unique monuments of architecture made by human hands. Why seven? This number since the time of Apollo is considered a symbol of perfection, which is why all the wonders of the world were rigorously selected for the "title" of the most majestic. But, unfortunately, only one of them has survived to this day, or rather its main part, the rest were either plundered or destroyed by natural elements. But, thanks to archaeological excavations and scientific research, we know their external appearance. What is included in this seven wonders of the world, which in the most ancient era created the hands of talented artists?
7 ancient wonders of the world
The pyramids of Giza . The most ancient miracle of the world, which is located in the Egyptian city of Giza and called the Great Pyramids. Once upon a time the pyramids were within a hundred, but not all of them survived to our times. The largest is the pyramid of Cheops, which "survived" to this day almost in its original form, but due to some of the damage it became lower by nine meters. It is dated this miracle of the world in 1983 BC, its uniqueness - in the exact laying of blocks, between which even now you can not insert a thin blade. The pyramid of Cheops is considered to be a tomb, because in it a sarcophagus was found, but scientists can not find exact proofs to this till now. Inside there are no remains of the pharaoh, no ornaments, no inscriptions that would shed light on this riddle. Perhaps, once the pyramid was plundered. The entrance to it is "guarded" by the most impressive statue in the world - the majestic Great Sphinx.
Hanging Gardens of Semiramis . Unfortunately, this structure has not survived until our days - built in the sixth century BC, it was destroyed by a flood in the second century. Currently, you can see only the remains of stone ruins, which, however, and now breathtaking. This landmark is located near Baghdad, they were accidentally discovered during excavations by archaeologist Robert Caldei in 1989. The history of the appearance of hanging gardens, according to historians, is very romantic - they were created by the order of King Nebuchadnezzar II, who wanted to make such an unusual gift to his wife Amitis. The Tsarina was born from the blossoming Media and in Babylon was very homesick for her homeland, so the king decided to please his beloved wife. And although the mystery of the hanging gardens is not fully understood, they are rightfully included in the seven wonders of the world.
Statue of Zeus in Olympia . In the fourth century, the antique sculptor Phidias created another miracle of the world - the Olympic statue of Zeus. At that time, in honor of the father of the gods, it was decided to erect a temple, the construction of which lasted for fifteen years. It was a truly magnificent sanctuary, executed with all the scope. Then the authorities of Hellas asked Phidias to create a statue of Zeus, and the ancient master created a sculpture made of ivory. Dimensions of the statue struck imagination - fifteen meters in height! The design of the sculpture took more than two hundred kilograms of gold. Unfortunately, after the transfer to Constantinople, the deity was destroyed in 362 AD. According to one version - the sculpture was burnt in the fire, on the other - the design was looted. And only in 1875 were discovered its remains, and in 1950 - the sculptor's workshop. Thanks to careful research of scientists, the external appearance of the statue of Zeus was restored.
Temple of Artemis in Ephesus . The Greek city of Ephesus worshiped the goddess of fertility and the patroness of women in childbirth, Artemis, so in 550 BC a beautiful temple was erected in her honor. The design of the building was invented by the architect Harsifron, and since Ephesus was not a poor city, the construction was decided to be made of marble with two rows of columns. In the center of the temple was installed a sculpture of the goddess fifteen meters high - the statue was surprisingly beautiful. Inlaid with gold and precious stones, she did not allow to take her eyes off her! And if the temple and the statue had survived to our times, they would have eclipsed any modern masterpiece. But, alas, this did not happen - in 355 BC this unique miracle of the world was destroyed as a result of a severe fire. Only certain parts of the marble structure survived, which eventually destroyed the marshy soil. It took a lot of time for researchers to recreate the appearance of the temple.
Mausoleum in Halicarnassus . This majestic structure was seen in 352 BC and represented a temple, a burial vault, and a monument. At once, several architects and sculptors worked on the project of the Halicarnassus Mausoleum , and tens of masters were involved in the construction. In the tomb was a courtyard with a pedestal guarded by lions made of stone. The walls are covered with images of the gods, and at the corners stood stone guards. At the top of the building were four massive sculptures of horses with drivers, and the roof was "held" by monolithic columns. The construction survived both the conquest of Alexander the Great and the attack of pirates, but could not survive the plunder of the Maltese in the fifteenth century. From the building there was only the foundation, which was found during excavations in 1965-1976. This helped scientists to restore the original appearance of the Halicarnassus mausoleum.
The Colossus of Rhodes . The idea of creating a statue of Helios, the patron saint of the island, was adopted by the government after the island survived the long siege of the invaders. The goal of the colossus is to thank the Greek sun god for protecting Rhodes. The statue was built at the very beginning of the third century BC and represented a standing stone Helios. Initially, the sun god had to keep a stone blanket in his outstretched hand, but, realizing that in such a situation the statue would simply collapse, this idea was abandoned. As a result, Helios was elevated to a height of thirty-six meters and with a radiant crown on his head. But, half a century later, Rhodes was subjected to a series of earthquakes, and the base of the statue cracked. Colossus of Rhodes collapsed into the sea, where he lay for a thousand years. Over time, it was gradually dismantled and melted down the bronze finish of the statue. It was she who served as the prototype of all the famous Statue of Liberty.
Alexandria lighthouse . In the third century BC, by the order of the ruler of Ptolemy in Egyptian Alexandria, a majestic lighthouse was built on Faros. The construction of this building lasted about twenty years and was completed in 290, as a result of which the world's first construction of this type appeared. The height of the lighthouse was about 140 meters, the structure was a huge tower in three tiers, lined with marble blocks. The Alexandria lighthouse regularly carried its service for about fifteen hundred years, but the strongest earthquakes gradually damaged the structure. Finally, the lighthouse was destroyed in 1326 BC, and only relatively recently, in 1995, its remains were discovered by researchers. Thanks to this, using computer graphics, the appearance of this miracle of the world was recreated.
Unfortunately today only the pyramids of Giza are preserved from the ancient wonders of the world, but time does not stand still, and today, after centuries, you can see the new wonders of the world light created by man.