Self improvementPsychology

What is the psychology of communication? Types of communication

Communication is a complex act of mental activity characteristic of most living beings. If in lower insects, animals and birds this occurs at the reflex level, then the higher the stage of development of a living organism, the more diverse are the manifestations of brain activity. Naturally, it is most pronounced in humans.

Communication and its types

As the psychology of communication teaches , the types of communication are related to such concepts as the need / need for information transfer; Establishing / developing contacts between individuals or social groups; Joint productive activities. They existed from the moment of the birth of human society and will take place as long as it exists. The psychology of communication studies the types of communication between an individual and a multitude of people. Let us consider them in more detail.

  • Indirect and direct communication. Direct is through personal contacts, when people talk to each other. Indirect is conducted through intermediaries, second-third parties.
  • Instrumental communication and communication of a special purpose. The first is connected with the solution of various business issues. In the joint production of extremely important psychology of communication, types of communication and their forms. But the target is more free, neutral. It is designed to satisfy personal needs in relationships, relationships, conversations, etc.
  • Communicate verbal (ie, in verbal verbal form) and non-verbal.
  • Mediated and direct. Like those described above, these forms have a number of ways of expression. The psychology of communication, the types of communication associated with them, on the one hand, are more complex, versatile, and, on the other, somewhat simplified.

So, directly related to the unity of place and time, the necessity of the presence of both / several interlocutors simultaneously. And this is its limitation. But it is more diverse in the possibilities of mimic, intonational and other expression of emotions. Mediated communication is more free from local and other bindings. It does not require that the interlocutors are near at the time of speech. For example, when writing a letter to a friend, we can be from it for thousands of kilometers. But you can not see the smile, hear the timbre of the voice and other specific nuances.

Position-functional communication

This is not all that social psychology is studying . Types and functions of communication are not limited only to those listed above. For example, Western experts indicate that, depending on the nature of the dialogues, the "parent", "child" and "adult" position is highlighted. And the same person, depending on the situation, speaks in each of them during one day and even one speech situation. They are peculiar to people, regardless of age, and are accepted both unconsciously and specially. "Parents" act in the role of punitive and guardians, and "child" - rebellious or obedient. In this regard, the classification of types of communication is divided into a number of positions. Among them, in the first place, stand out such as "on equal footing", "subordinates", "pressure from above", open and closed. They, in turn, are considered basic for 8 styles of individual communication.

These and many other knowledge obtained by social psychology provide an opportunity to correctly and correctly build relationships between people, cultivate tolerance and tolerance, and help to adapt in society.

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