New standards have become decisive in the work of teachers. GEF introduced a new era of Russian education. Let's find out what is the methodological basis of GEF, what kind of knowledge the teacher should have.
On the need to adopt the standards of the second generation
In 2010, the mass media presented the results of a PISA study conducted in 65 countries, including the Russian Federation. In this international survey, three issues were considered:
- Whether training meets international standards;
- What changes have been made recently in the education system;
- What is the direction of further improvement of teaching and education in the Shelter.
Within the analysis of the application of the system-activity approach , 15-year-old pupils were involved in the survey. The evaluation was carried out in the following areas: reading technique, logical skills, natural science skills. The researchers were tasked to assess the ability of children to use the knowledge they received in school in ordinary situations.
As a result of the survey, the Russian Federation was on the 45th place out of 65 countries in the literacy of students in general education schools. Experts noted in Russia a direct relationship between the material situation of the family and the good result of the child's learning. Leaders of the survey were South Korea, Finland, China, Singapore.
About 27% of Russian schoolchildren did not show the required reading technique, 29% did not master elementary mathematical concepts, 22% did not master the basics of natural science.
GEF 2 generations were planned as a real breakthrough in Russian education. The basis for the development of standards is the installation of a full transfer of schools from the "catching up" to the "advanced" model, the refusal to copy European educational systems. The creators of the GEF NEO took into account the informatization of society, developed the theory bases on the basis of a competence educational paradigm. In the end, successful citizens who possess competencies and skills, who love their country, traditions should emerge from the OS. Also, among the distinguishing features of the GEF DOE, we note the transition to a design and design strategy based on the system-activity approach, increasing the importance of educational work in the OS.
Innovations in GEF
The basic paradigm was changed from knowledge to system-activity. Primary school teachers have already realized what is the methodological basis of GEF. For each lesson, they indicate the training universal skills that every child should end up possessing.
For the previous education system, the teacher was faced with the task of giving the pupils the maximum amount of new knowledge. For the innovative paradigm, the task was a competence approach, personal growth. GEF focus the educational community on obtaining the final result. Responsibility for it is entrusted to new standards for all participants of the educational process, including the student himself.
Answering the question about what is the methodological basis of GEF, we will use the concept of spiritual and moral education and personal development. The new standards require serious attention to the educational process in the OS. The standard treats the school as a carrier of social identity. The DU must educate a patriot and citizen, fully disclose the talents of children, develop them, and work closely with families of schoolchildren and social institutions.
The school and the society on technology of GEF are recognized as partners, it is a question of the agreement between the municipality, the DU, the family.
It assumes a departure from the traditional class-lesson system, the development of project skills, the development of skills of independent search and selection of information.
The methodological basis for the implementation of GEF includes the formation of skills for the hypothesis, the selection of methodology, analysis of the results of work. When developing a new generation of GEF, the priority was the formation of general-purpose skills and abilities, their application in real conditions.
The "fundamental core" of GEF
The developers are sure that the main difference of GEF in the minimized approach to the construction of educational space on the basis of fundamentalism. During the formation of the economy, the importance of basic education is obvious. It is the main factor in the use of innovative technologies, the RF's ability to be competitive in the market. The authors of the DUS concept are Molchanov SV, Valodarskaya IA, Asmolov AG They are convinced that the social standard had to be included in the general education standard. The Russian Federation passes from an industrial kind to an information society, in which the rate is placed on high innovative potential. The main goal of education in such realities is cognitive, personal, general cultural development. A child who receives basic education must be able to learn.
Portrait of a GEF graduate of the 4th grade
After four years of schooling, the student must:
- Love your people, Motherland, land;
- Respect and accept the values of society and the family;
- With interest to know the world, to be active and inquisitive;
- To have the skills to acquire knowledge, to be responsible for the actions taken before society and the family;
- Be able to hear, listen to another person, motivate personal opinion, explain the position;
- Follow the rules of a healthy lifestyle.
Portrait on GEF of the graduate of 9 class
The concept of modernization of education puts forward certain requirements for ninth-graders:
- Love their Fatherland, the land, know their native language, respect the spiritual traditions and culture of their people;
- To understand and accept the values of the family and human life, be tolerant of representatives of different nationalities and religions;
- With interest to know the surrounding world, to understand the importance of labor, creativity, science;
- To be able to learn, to realize the importance of self-education, to use the acquired knowledge in everyday life;
- Respect the laws of the Russian Federation, be socially active, and possess moral values;
- Appreciate the interlocutor, maintain a full dialogue, work in a team to achieve the goal;
- Consciously implement and promote environmental safety;
- To focus on the market of professions, to understand the importance of professional activity for a person.
Portrait of a GEF secondary school graduate
- Love and appreciate their homeland, land, know the spiritual traditions and culture of the people, respect the people;
- To understand and accept the values of society, family, respect for multinationality, to understand ownership of their country;
- Creatively and critically think, purposefully learn the world around them, take the value of creativity, science for society and man, motivate themselves for self-education and education throughout life;
- To master the basics of cognition of the surrounding world, to be motivated by innovative activity and creativity;
- Readiness for cooperation, implementation of project and research activities;
- Awareness of oneself as a person who respects the laws of a country that fulfills obligations to the state, society, family, humanity;
- To respect the interlocutor's opinion, to find mutual understanding in the process of dialogue;
- To conduct conscious preparation for the choice of profession, to understand its importance.
Composition of standard
Modernization of Russian education was necessary, taking into account the realities of society. The standard included three groups of requirements:
- To the development of the educational program at the primary, secondary, senior level of education ;
- To the structure of OOP, the ratio of volume and result;
- Personnel, material and technical resources.
So what is the methodological basis of GEF? For the main school, a subdivision into different subject areas has been preserved, individual curricula are offered, and there are options for teaching children with disabilities and gifted (talented) children. The teacher performs the function of a classical tutor, helps the pupil in self-improvement and development.
What will change in the average (full) education after the introduction of GEF?
First of all, the standards suggest a significant reduction in the number of subjects. Of the 21 disciplines will remain 12. The new standard offers for high school students to leave 6 subject areas, the children themselves choose the disciplines they need. As compulsory subjects in the Shelter are left: "Russia in the world", OBZH, physical culture. The chosen discipline is examined at three levels of study:
- The first stage (integrated);
- Second stage (basic);
- The third step (profile).
For specialized training, 5 hours a week are offered, for integrated and basic education - 3 hours a week. The individual curriculum for a high school student contains three basic, three compulsory, three profile subjects. The weekly load should not exceed 33 hours.
Professionalism of staff
The success of introducing new educational standards directly depends on the qualifications of teachers. The Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation has established new rules for attestation for teachers, as well as the terms of professional training (at least once every four years).
The volume of courses for teachers working in the middle and senior level is defined at 108 hours, for primary classes - 72 hours.
On the timing of the introduction into the GF OC of the second generation
For basic education, 2015 is set, for the senior level - 2017. The fifth graders, who came from primary school in 2015, continued their education according to the new standards. In each region and region of the Russian Federation there are special experimental sites. Seminars, conferences, testing are conducted in these OS, the results of innovation are analyzed. The standard has become a powerful incentive for the professional development of the teacher. The teacher, working in the traditional form of education, simply transferred his own knowledge to the pupils, was a talking radio. According to the GEF of the new generation, the teacher plays the role of tutor, together with children creates projects, conducts research. The mentor is the organizer, the moderator of the activity of pupils, and not the supervisor.
Will the children have an overload with the new educational system?
If we compare the academic load of Russian schoolchildren with European peers, the difference is about 25%. In addition, in no country there is such a long vacation, like the Russian pupils of the Shelter. When analyzing weekly hours there is a serious overload of schoolchildren. In Russia, the minimum duration of schooling is 10 years, while in the "old world" the children study 12-13 years. When the GEF prolongs school life to 12 years, the children will be unloaded, the question of the lack of time for profile programs will be solved.
New trends in the educational system help to form a successful personality, adapted to modern realities. When implementing the system-activity approach, a citizen of the country who knows how to honor and appreciate her traditions is educated. Students learn to control their actions, to be responsible for them, to solve everyday problems based on the knowledge they have received at school. Transfer of emphasis from narrow subject skills and abilities to universality, self-knowledge, development. The new standards have a fundamental basis, suggest an increase in cognitive interest among students in certain subject areas, in general, the learning process. The importance of knowledge is not denied, but citizenship, patriotism, and communicativeness come to the forefront. A special place is given to educational work. Together with the parents, the educator must form in the child spiritual and moral qualities.