Sustainability of the ecosystem is one of the most significant indicators of the state of the environment. It represents the ability of the ecological system as a whole and its components to successfully resist negative external factors, while preserving not only its structure, but also its functions. The most important characteristic of stability is the relative damping of the oscillations that arise. This ability is tightly studied to determine the consequences from the impact of anthropogenic factors.
The notion of "ecosystem sustainability" often appears to be synonymous with environmental sustainability. Like any other phenomenon in nature, the whole essence of the ecosystem tends to balance (the balance of biological species, the balance of energy and others). Thus, the mechanism of self-regulation plays a special role. The main task of this process is the joint existence of a multitude of living organisms, as well as objects of inanimate nature, while limiting and regulating the abundance of each species. Sustainability of the ecosystem is ensured by the absence of complete destruction of the population. The existing species diversity allows each representative to eat several forms that are at a lower trophic level. Thus, if the species abundance is significantly reduced and is close to the destruction threshold, it is possible to "switch" to another more common form of life. This is the factor of sustainability of ecosystems.
As mentioned earlier, environmental stability is considered synonymous with the notion of sustainability. This is not accidental. Save the environment in a stable state is possible only if the dynamic equilibrium law is not violated. Otherwise, not only the quality of the natural environment, but even the existence of a whole complex of different natural components, may be threatened. Sustainability of the ecosystem, provided by the law of dynamic internal equilibrium, is also subject to the balance of large areas and the balance of components. It is these concepts that underlie nature use. In addition, the development of special sets of measures that are aimed at protecting the environment, should also be carried out taking into account the above laws and balances.
Sustainability of the ecosystem can also be represented as an ecological balance. It is a special property of living systems, which is not violated even under the influence of various anthropogenic factors. When developing projects for the development of new areas, it is necessary to take into account the ratio of extensively and intensively used lands in the area presented. These can be various urbanized complexes, meadows for grazing cattle, areas of preserved natural forests. Irrational development of territories can cause significant damage to both the ecology of this particular region and the natural ecosystem as a whole.