Vladimir Monomakh: historical portrait. Give a description of the policy of Vladimir Monomakh

Vladimir Monomakh is known to modern historians better than other princes of that era. The years of his life (1053-1125) are known, as well as the fact that he was born from Vsevolod Yaroslavich and the "queen of the Greek". According to his mother, Vladimir was the grandson of Constantine IX (Byzantine emperor), and his father - Yaroslav the Wise.

He received an excellent education, he knew several languages, including Greek. Even the ancient Romans considered it important to know this language for further education. All scientific, philosophical and spiritual knowledge of the time was open to those who understood Greek speech and writing. At the lessons of history at school you can often hear the question: "Give a description of the policy of Vladimir Monomakh." The article is devoted to him.

The beginning of government

In the early years, Vladimir Vsevolodovich reigned in Rostov, then in Smolensk, Chernigov, Pereyaslavl. His authority in political life was undeniable. He was an ardent opponent of fratricidal strife between the princes. To answer the question: "Give a characterization of the policy of Vladimir Monomakh," you should carefully study the events of the Lubets Congress of Princes.

It was Vladimir who initiated this congress in Lyubich in 1097, whose goal was to stop the feuds between the princes and come to common understandings about who owns them. He led the fight with intestine all his life.

Characteristics of the policy

The main enemy of Russia, in addition to the princely wars, Vladimir Monomakh believed Polovtsi. It was he who managed to settle the nomads and establish a peaceful life in the state for thirty years.

In addition to weapons, to maintain peace on their lands, he used the methods of his grandfather Yaroslav the Wise. It is known that he became famous as the "father-in-law of Europe". Vladimir Vsevolodovich married his sons to the daughters of the Polovtsian khan. Thus, he strengthened peaceful relations with him.

The prince himself was married to the daughter of the Anglo-Saxon king Gita. With the help of inter-historic marriages, he was able to become related to the Swedish, Norwegian, Byzantine, Hungarian states. Next, the domestic policy of Vladimir Monomakh will be briefly presented.

Domestic policy

Characteristics of the policy of Vladimir Monomakh is not limited to wars alone, struggle with dissension and international agreements. He was engaged in the improvement of civilian life, civil activity, construction. Thus, in the annals there is a mention of the construction of a bridge across the Dnieper, the strengthening of the cities of Ladoga and Novgorod the Great, the creation of many temples.

A lot of disasters fell on Rus' share of that time, with them the prince could not fight. Such catastrophic events and phenomena include:

  • Earthquakes;
  • Drought;
  • Floods (often in Novgorod);
  • Fires (especially devastating was the fire in Kiev in 1124, lasted two days and destroyed the entire Podol and part of the Upper City);
  • Invasion of locusts (in the south).

To regulate the lives of people, the prince updated the "Russian truth". After its additions, it was renamed the "Charter of Vladimir Monomakh". It included clauses on the conditions of a monetary loan, for which a single percentage of payments on the debt was established. This allowed ordinary people (ryadovich, smerds, and buyers) to avoid the threat of turning into slaves for their debts. At the same time, the document protected the boyars, merchants, vigilantes, moneylenders, clergymen from popular uprisings.

Despite the desire for unity, Vladimir Monomakh's domestic policy did not provide for the destruction of the specific order. For centuries, the opinion was formed that the prince should unite in his hands as much land as possible for himself and his children.

Teaching to children

Vladimir Monomakh, whose domestic policy was not confined to fighting the strife, is represented by literary activity. One of the works by which the prince became famous was his "Instruction to the children." It is a clear example of his intelligence, erudition, literacy, piety. In it, he persuades his children to live in peace. He gives them his instructions.

Instructions of Vladimir Monomakh:

  • Honor God most of all;
  • In a war, rely only on yourself, not on the governor;
  • Do not be lazy;
  • Love your wives, but do not let them have authority over you;
  • Watch for the observance of justice;
  • Honor people - the elderly as fathers, and young as brothers;
  • Read the ambassadors and guests gifts or treats, because they will tell you about the world;
  • Do not forget your knowledge and learn everything new.

The work itself is studied by contemporaries as an outstanding literary monument. It is also used as a historical document that allows one to understand the features of Russian medieval life, its way of life, moral values. Acquaintance with the work will allow students and schoolchildren to cope with the task: "Give a description of the policy of Vladimir Monomakh."

Last way

The prince lived for 74 years. His last days on earth were connected with the affairs of the state. He traveled to his native Pereyaslavl, where he was going to observe the completion of the construction of the church of Boris and Gleb.

After his death, his body was transported to Kiev and buried remains in the St. Sophia Cathedral next to his father. The chronicler narrates that all the people wept for him, because he considered him "brotherly, poverty-stricken and a good sufferer for the Russian land."

The Legend of the Hat of Monomakh

If they ask: "Give a description of the policy of Vladimir Monomakh", it is worth mentioning an interesting legend. It is that when the prince of Kiev went to Byzantium, the emperor sent him symbols of power (regalia) towards him. The ambassadors gave him a gift, which consisted of many precious and sacred objects:

  • A wooden cross with a crucifixion on which Christ was executed;
  • The cup of cornelian, which once belonged to Emperor Augustus Caesar;
  • Gold barms (shoulder pads) decorated with precious stones;
  • Chain of Arabian gold;
  • Royal crown.

It was the crown that became known as Monomakh's hat. She was crowned on the throne of subsequent kings before Peter the Great. Modern specialists have found in this legend a discrepancy, since the crown consists of details that date back to the 14th century.

However, the legend proves that Russia was considered the successor of Constantinople (Constantinople). To refute such conclusions are not yet solved, in part because of the wise policy of Vladimir Vsevolodovich.

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