Vasily Tatishchev and his contribution to science. The ship "Vasily Tatishchev"

Vasily Tatishchev is the name, most likely, on the ears of an educated person. But it's not everyone who can clearly formulate what it is related to and what it symbolizes. And the fact is that today the reconnaissance ship "Vasily Tatishchev" of the Russian Navy is plowing the ocean and often gets into the mass media. But there is a reason why the glorious designers chose this name. And here is no accident! And this man was an extraordinary man, and for connoisseurs of history - a real symbol. Yes, and the ship of the Baltic Fleet "Vasily Tatishchev" is no less exceptional.

What do we know about the ship?

Construction of the ship was made not so long ago, in the 80 years of the twentieth century. And today he is not even thirty years old, because he was launched into water in November 1987. On the 27th, the shipyard in Gdansk launched the SSV-231 communications ship. Almost a year later, on this ship, the flag of the USSR was raised by the order of the Commander of the Twice Red Banner Baltic Fleet. This was in the not too distant future "Vasily Tatishchev." The ship did not change its destination with the disintegration of the country, but in 1998 the command of the medium reconnaissance ship signed an agreement with the management of Kuibyshevazot JSC in Togliatti on the patronage of connections. And this was a fateful decision. Since two years later the vessel was renamed into CSR "Vasily Tatishchev" due to the insistence of the mayor of Togliatti, the founder of which is precisely this historical personality. Having such a short history, the Baltic Fleet reconnaissance ship "Vasily Tatishchev" still managed to visit 22 hikes along the route across the Atlantic Ocean, the Baltic and Northern, and the Mediterranean Sea. According to public data, its "mileage" is 340 thousand nautical miles. But the time in transit - a total of only three years, since the displacement of the vessel - 3.4 tons, without the need to drive it will not. What else can surprise Vasily Tatishchev? The ship is one of eight vessels built under the project 864 Meridian in the Soviet Union. But even today it is the crown of military shipbuilding, designed to receive any information by intercepting radio communications.

"Vasily Tatishchev" - a ship with a glorious history

In the world there is a constant confrontation of various kinds of forces and redistribution of spheres of influence. At all times, spies in this game provided very powerful help and played out sometimes crucial role. In our computer age, electronic spies have replaced people, and electronic intelligence systems - to replace introduced scouts. Such systems are different - from the tiniest types of equipment to aircraft and ships. It is such a system of intelligence gathering that the Baltic Fleet reconnaissance ship "Vasily Tatishchev" is. Recently, the ship has shown itself most vividly in supporting aircraft and other reconnaissance groups in Russia in Syria. He left the Baltic Sea, his permanent place of residence, and according to some sources of the media was sent to the shores of Syria in the eastern Mediterranean. The main task of the crew was to monitor the situation on the air not only of Syria, but also of neighboring countries-neighbors. Apparently, the territorial waters and the free zone were not an exception. The reconnaissance ship "Vasily Tatishchev" is not the first to leave the Baltic Sea. There is evidence that the war in Yugoslavia was also under the supervision of this scout. Therefore, one can hardly believe that such a glorious and large ship moves from the Baltic Sea for long distances simply for pleasure or general information purposes. The ship is able to make up for the absence or loss of ground bases when very active use is needed. Always will impress such constructions of engineering thought, as the ship "Vasily Tatishchev". The photo below is absolutely not exclusive. But when you see it not in the Baltic latitudes, the whole world can only be alert.

Let us return to the historical personality

The bright beginning of the development of the sciences in tsarist Russia, as well as in Europe, is associated with a small number of names. But these people embodied a real genius, they were interested in various directions and left behind a huge amount of invaluable material, that today the department can be envied for such a volume if not the whole institute, then the department is exact. In a row with the whole known name of MV. Lomonosov stands and the identity of Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev. He was by the type of activity an official-administrator under Peter I. By education - an engineer. But by the nature of hobbies - historian, economist, geographer, educator, advocate of book printing and general education of the population. Such an acute understanding of where and in what the future of the country, already at the beginning of the XVIII century, concentrated attention on important issues, which, unfortunately, were not soon begun to be solved. Yes, and Vasily Tatishchev sacrificed a lot. But his contemporaries could not appreciate him, he could not help calling up his actions and denunciations, he could not appreciate the power and apply such advanced and advanced ideas. Although it is with such personalities that progress in history begins.

A few lines from the biography

Tatishchev Vasily Nikitich, whose contribution to the history is simply priceless, was born on April 19, 1686. Educated in Moscow, graduating from the Artillery and Engineering School. The career under Peter I began as a military, participating in the Northern War in the early XVIII century. Already at the end of the war, Tatishchev began to make geographic maps, for the rest of his life carried away with both history and geography. Continuing his career in the civil service, Tatishchev gets a referral to the Urals as a steward of state-owned factories. Then he headed the Mint office for a while. In addition, he was still the head of the Kalmyk and Orenburg Commissions. In total, the civil servant Vasily Tatishchev spent 42 years, completing his career in 1745, five years before his death. Being displaced from his post Astrakhan governor, Vasily Nikitich was exiled to the suburbs, to the estate of Boldino. Here, in a calm environment, he adds his "History of Russia", the materials to which he collected his whole life. But let's do it in order and in more detail.

Vasily Tatishchev. Discoveries

Wherever there is a genius and whatever he does, his talent and creativity will always be embodied in deeds and deeds. So, having twice headed the Ural plants, the engineer by training both times tried to reorganize the mining industry and developed large-scale projects. It was far from Moscow to here, but it is with her that we have to decide the issues. Delivery of correspondence at that time took many months, which could not satisfy an energetic and seriously minded person. Tatishchev developed and even began to implement a new type of mail, completely alien to Russia. And Vasily Tatishchev's contribution to the opening of schools and the organization of education for the general public can not be overemphasized. He also manages to arrange fairs and is well-off. In connection with his work, the factory manager could not help influencing the creation of mining laws. It is also being introduced into the development of new crafts. As a top manager, Vasily Tatishchev performs not only direct duties, but assumes the functions of voivode, judge and even governor. And do you know who was the founder of Stavropol (now Togliatti), Yekaterinburg and Perm? That's it - Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev.

During the time of Peter I the Urals began to become very active. Deforestation was so barbaric, illiterate, and brutal that over the next 50 years such a relationship in the Urals would simply not have left a single tree. And it is simply impossible to restore such a forest without the help of a person and in such a short time. It can be seen that environmental problems always followed the person and progress. Perhaps the gratitude of descendants for everything should be to such a caring and attentive person as Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev that he opened the eyes of officials and authorities to environmental problems as early as the 18th century and developed a project for managing the mining industry. In the duties of the chief, he put in an item on the need to preserve forests. Moreover, according to the issued decree, the deforestation was strictly forbidden and punishable by death in the vicinity of the newly emerged city of Ekaterinburg. It is in this city that there is a unique monument where Peter I, the autocrat and the thunderstorm of Russian history, proudly rises hand in hand with his younger associate - Vasily Tatishchev.

Hobbies that have become a science

Vasiliy Tatishchev did not forget about his hobbies with history and geography and directed to their development any opportunities that gave him the life of an official and travel around the country. Any historical written sources, as well as the first Russian maps of the Urals and Siberia, an outstanding historian and a cartographer collect. And because of the opportunities it makes copies of such materials and distributes them in a useful direction. Maps he sends to surveyors for the compilation of new maps. At the same time, he organizes a search for minerals, collects ore samples personally, forcing, among other things, to describe and produce the drawings of the deposits themselves. Only a wide stream of information allowed Tatishchev to collect extensive and diverse scientific material. The organizer of this work was able to perpetuate and preserve countless information on Siberian geography and archeology, but at the same time on history, ethnography and even linguistics. Each scientist made a business trip with scientific research, sometimes even scientific expeditions. He studied the language, life and customs of the local population, nature and the environment, collecting entire collections of minerals and plants. He carefully examined the Kungur cave and was interested in mineral springs. With so much work and with such organizational skills, few can compare.

Tatishcheva's advanced thinking

Everyone knows that people who care about the future always think broadly and thoroughly. Such personalities are always concerned not with the problem of daily bread, but with important and global issues. Vasily Tatishchev, who opened the opportunity for understanding Siberia, fascinated by history and science, first of all he was thinking about descendants and their future. Is it a great wisdom to understand that in developing science, production, construction, military science, specialists are needed to embody and support this all? And to instill the necessary qualities and raise people who know their business, it is necessary from the very childhood. Already in the first years of his administration in the Urals, Tatishchev opened schools for teaching geometry and mining. The schools were public, but they required literacy. In fulfillment of this, the duty was assigned to the district police officers. That they prepared in each settlement a premise for the school, where the clergymen could teach at least ten peasants reading and writing. Later, a mining school was opened in Yekaterinburg, allowing to combine theoretical training with the practical application of knowledge at the plant. This was an innovation even for Europe. But Peter did not fully share this educational approach with Tatishchev.

Relations between Tatishchev and Peter I

Vasily Nikitich was a very emotional and unusual person. He thought outside the box and quite widely. The autocrat listened to the original thoughts of his companion, but sometimes the scholar's judgments exceeded the bounds of the allowed. Painfully they were free, and the minister himself was not afraid to enter into a dispute with the ruler. Knowing the character of Peter I, he hardly liked it. So Vasily Tatishchev insisted, for example, that the priority in education should be the opening of simple schools. After all, it is simply necessary to prepare first-stage students first, then to have the opportunity and human resources to master the sciences already at the academy. Because otherwise, there simply will not be anyone to teach when, at the invitation of the king, the professors from Germany and Sweden will come. Then science will come to Russia to do it by itself, but there will simply be no one to teach. Unfortunately, Petro I did not listen to Tatishchev's advice, but the situation developed in the future. The biography of Vasily Tatishchev, among other things, is also full of ill-wishers. They could be found at the court a lot. They successfully whispered to the tsar about the misdeeds of a distant Ural outstanding officer, which the culprit himself could not even suspect. The breadth of the thought of the latter, idealism and principledness always scared opponents. And how could you not be afraid of such sky-high fantasies, and even with such influence on the sovereign? This explains the constant accusations, harassment and legal proceedings. And although all this ended with Tatishchev's justification, he did not give a chance to live and work hard, constantly distracting from business and taking time. But anyway, and Petro I still supported and encouraged the affairs of Tatishchev.

Tatischev in Europe

The death of Peter I found Vasily Tatishchev in Sweden, where the executive official was carrying out the Tsar's mission. But after the change of power our hero remained completely without support and without money, so that there was even something to return to his homeland. But Vasily Tatishchev was not particularly upset about this. He acquainted with the scientific elite of Sweden, subtracted and revised all articles on Russia in the dictionary of Gibner's "Lexicon ...". His scientific work did not freeze for a minute. The Russian historian wrote in Latin and published an article in Sweden about the mammoth bones found in the Kungur cave. He closely communicated with academics, especially interested in the Swedish economy. His interest was practical, so that later this knowledge could be used in Russia. It was thanks to Tatischev that the Swedish poetess Sofya Brenner wrote a poem about Peter I according to Tatishchev's short description of the great affairs of the tsar.

Completion of the career and the last years of life

Returning home, Vasily Tatishchev could no longer regain his former position and influence. The Empress translates him all the time from place to place, each time moving away from the capital. But at each new place Tatishchev successfully mastered and even began to embody the reforms of the sphere under his control. For example, in the Moscow monetary office, he proposed reform of the then Russian monetary system. Later he was thrown on the settlement of conflicts with Kazakh tribes, Kalmyks and even sent to the Bashkir mutiny. And denunciations all continue to fly to the capital, and at the insistence of the Senate in 1745 the empress issued an order to release Tatishchev from his post, and also imposes a ban on him to come to St. Petersburg and leave his village. So Tatishchev, already weakened by illness, falls under house arrest and settles in his estate near Moscow. But the real genius never calms down and does not despair. Boldino becomes like a branch of the Academy of Sciences. Until the last remained active and incorrigible Tatishchev Vasily Nikitich. The main works and achievements of this period were identified in the publication of the "History of the Russian", his own writing, as well as in the preparation for the publication of Tatishchev's books "The Code of the Law of Ivan the Terrible."

In addition, the academy received notes from the scientist about the eclipse of the sun and the moon, a proposal for the publication of alphabet with figures and inscriptions, as well as remarks for the correction of the Russian alphabet. The scientist continues to reflect on religious tolerance, which is often angered by the higher circles of power. Also, the thinker analyzes and makes his suggestions for improving the legislation of Russia, guided mainly by the conviction that people tend to care only about themselves, not remembering others. And about the whole good and not at all should worry ordinary people. Proposals and projects were also made to the reform of the economy.

Despite the vicissitudes of fate, Vasily Tatishchev never parted with optimism and active activity. Not receiving anything in return, he gives twice as much as it was even required. Never tired and not complaining about anything. But after all the career was not successful, there was no family life as such, there are very few friends, and enemies - a dime a dozen. Like any other genius, Tatishchev overtook his time. But he did not dutifully wait, but acted as the instigator and the passionate minister of everything that was not completely perceived by contemporaries, but as a result became a reality. Though Tatishchev himself did not see the fruits of his labors, but without him, these accomplishments would come to Russia with a great delay. It would be more now such people and it would be less than them sticks in wheels.

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