Hyperkinetic syndrome today is one of the most frequent behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. According to different data, this diagnosis is put about from 3 to 20% of schoolchildren who come to see a pediatrician. On clinical manifestations, it can be confused with poor behavior, anxiety or temperamental characteristics, since one of its main symptoms is increased activity.
However, due to some bright features, specialists can differentiate this violation. We learn its symptoms, as well as how to diagnose and treat ADHD.
Hyperkinetic syndrome. Definition and prevalence in children
Hyperkinetic syndrome is one of the most common behavioral disorders that occur in childhood and adolescence. Like many other emotional disorders, it is manifested by excessive activity and anxiety. It is also often called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD).
Usually, this disorder occurs in children of primary school age. From seven to twelve years his frequency varies from 3 to 20% of small patients. And in the first years of life ADHD is much less common - in 1,5-2% of children. In boys, it appears about 3-4 times more often than in girls.
As already mentioned, hyperkinetic syndrome in children is manifested primarily by increased activity and excitability. Usually it occurs already in the younger school period. But often the symptoms are observed already in the third or fourth year of life.
If we talk about the first manifestations of the syndrome, we can note the increased sensitivity to irritants, which occurs even in infancy. Such children react more acutely to bright light, noise or changes in temperature. Also, ADHD syndrome is manifested by motor anxiety during waking and in sleep, resistance to swaddling and other symptoms.
In the younger school age, the following symptoms occur:
- Absence of attention. The child is not able to concentrate on any subject, can not listen to the teacher for a long time.
- Memory impairment. Because of ADHD, a junior schoolboy is less comfortable with the curriculum.
- Impulsiveness. The child becomes excitable and fussy. Often this is expressed by the inability to listen to the end, wait for your turn. The child's actions are often unmotivated and unexpected.
- Sleep disturbances.
- Emotional disorders: quick temper, aggressiveness, causing behavior or, on the contrary, causeless tearfulness.
It should also be noted that many children of primary school age have problems with coordination of movements. This is manifested in difficulties with writing, coloring, tying shoelaces. There are violations of spatial coordination.
Causes and factors affecting the onset of ADHD
The appearance of the syndrome of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is influenced by many factors:
- Various complications of pregnancy. Strong and prolonged toxicosis or high blood pressure in a future mother can provoke ADHD in a child.
- Wrong way of life during pregnancy. In all likelihood, it is not a secret for anyone that drinking alcohol or smoking can adversely affect the laying of organs and systems of the unborn child (including the nervous system). Also, to factors provoking hyperkinetic syndrome, you can include heavy physical work or stress.
- Prolonged or too fast deliveries can also negatively affect a child's development.
- Social factor. Problems with behavior and increased excitability are often a reaction to an unfavorable situation in the family or at school. Thus, the body tries to cope with a stressful situation. By itself, this factor is not able to cause ADHD, but can significantly enhance its symptoms.
However, the only and reliable cause of hyperkinetic syndrome has not yet been revealed.
ADHD or temperament?
Often, having discovered a child's impulsiveness and excessive activity, parents suspect that he has ADHD. However, do not forget that every child has his own temperament. For example, the characteristic features of choleric persons is just impulsiveness, quick temper and incontinence. And small sanguine people often have the inability to concentrate on one lesson and the need to switch from one activity to another often.
Therefore, before you beat the alarm, it's worthwhile to take a closer look at your baby: maybe his behavior is just a manifestation of temperament. In addition, the characteristics of junior school age suggest a small amount of memory and low stability of attention. These characteristics improve gradually as they grow older. It is also at this time often there is restlessness and impetuosity. A child of 7 years old can not concentrate on something for a long time.
Another thing is that with ADHD these symptoms are much more pronounced. If the increased activity is accompanied by distraction of attention and significant memory or sleep disorders, it is better to seek the help of a specialist.
How are ADHD diagnosed today? To be convinced of its presence, and also to learn, whether it accompanies another, more difficult disease, the consultation of the children's neurologist is first of all required. A comprehensive survey will include several stages.
First of all, it involves subjective diagnosis. The doctor examines the child and conducts a conversation with the parents, during which the specifics of the course of pregnancy, childbirth and the infant period are specified.
After this, the child is offered to undergo several psychological tests. Thus, attention, memory and emotional stability are assessed. In order for the examination to be objective, such tests are carried out only in children older than five years.
The final stage of diagnosis is electroencephalography. With its help, the activity of the cerebral cortex is assessed, possible violations are recorded. Based on the results of the study, the doctor can diagnose and, if necessary, prescribe a treatment. An experienced specialist takes into account the characteristic features of junior school age and can distinguish them from manifestations of the disease.
Since the symptoms of hyperkinetic syndrome usually occur even in kindergarten, it is very important that educators of educational institutions also know how to diagnose it. By the way, educators often pay attention to this problem earlier than parents.
What is hyperkinetic cardiac syndrome?
There is a disease with a similar name, which has no effect on behavior. This is a hyperkinetic cardiac syndrome. The fact is that, in contrast to the behavioral disorder, which is ADHD, this is one of the manifestations of autonomic dysfunction, namely, a violation of the heart. It is not found in children, but mostly in young men. Since often this syndrome is not accompanied by any symptoms, it can be identified only with an objective examination.
Therapy with drugs
As specialists who investigate hyperkinetic syndrome note, treatment of this disorder should be complex. One of its components is the use of medications. With a correctly diagnosed diagnosis, their effectiveness becomes very high. These drugs have a symptomatic effect. They suppress the manifestations of the syndrome and significantly facilitate the development of the child.
Drug therapy should be long, as it is important not only to remove symptoms, but also to consolidate the effect. Do not trust the folk remedies, because only the doctor will be able to select the optimal drug and prescribe an effective treatment.
Psychological support is another component of the treatment of ADHD. A child of 7 years is particularly in need of help, since the first school year is always difficult both for the student himself and for the parents. Especially if there is hyperactivity. In this case, psychological correction is necessary to form the child's skills of effective communication with peers and relatives.
It also involves close interaction with teachers and parents. The child needs constant care and support of the family, as well as careful participation by the teachers.
Does ADHD occur in adults?
Manifestations of ADHD gradually decrease, beginning with adolescence. At first, hyperactivity decreases, and attention disorders last. However, about twenty percent of people with a diagnosis of hyperkinetic syndrome, some of its symptoms persist even in adulthood.
In some cases, there is a trend towards antisocial behavior, alcoholism and drug addiction. Therefore, the manifestations of ADHD need to be diagnosed and treated in a timely manner.
Tips for parents
What should parents do if the child is diagnosed with ADHD? First, you need to create a favorable atmosphere in the house. It is very important to strictly adhere to the regime of the day - so the child will be more calm and balanced.
Given that ADHD is manifested by increased activity, it is worth writing down the child in the sports section. In general, any interesting hobby will greatly improve the state of the child. Communication with the child should be calm and benevolent. But you do not need to scold and punish, because it still does not achieve anything, and the care, support and attention of parents play a very big role.