Scientific and technological progress and the emergence of many forms of ownership led to the expansion of trade, economic and socio-cultural ties. The sharply intensified processes in the society affected the growth of the volumes of information flows necessary for the full functioning of the management links.
What is the unification of documents for?
Regardless of the scope and area: whether state activity or industry, education or healthcare - manual unification and standardization of documents gradually receded into the background. Since the beginning of the last century, the processing of data on their systematization has gradually shifted from manual to mechanized, and then to automated.
Thus, the rationalization of document management was carried out. The concept of "standardization and standardization of documents" was born at this stage. However, at all stages of document management and data processing, the same problem arose. It is impossible to bring chaos to automation, because this process must be preceded by the unification and standardization of documents in general. In other words, only by arranging the papers, you can proceed to their processing and use.
Goals and tasks of unification
Fundamental moments in the optimization of official managerial, economic and any other activities are unification and standardization of documents. Briefly explain this concept can be as bringing the workflow to a common uniform form, a uniform system.
- Uniform typification of forms.
- Establishing the same requirements for the processing of data arising during the adoption of the same type of management decisions.
- Significant reduction in costs of various nature for the compilation and design of materials.
- Compatibility of many uniform databases, regardless of industry and activities.
Functions of the unified document circulation
It is worthwhile to understand that any activity in the management and management of an organization, enterprise, or country, after all, is a system, each element of which becomes one or another function. Among them there are common (or typical) - those that are peculiar to the activities of any institution: organizational, administrative, executive, planning, accounting, etc. Meanwhile, the activities of individual organizations have specific functions. For example, tasks and objectives based on the implementation of educational activities are characteristic only of subjects of this field.
What is the system of documents
Unification and standardization of management documents is a system of materials, formed on the basis of their relationship to:
- Signs of emergence;
- Requirements for compilation.
What are the documents in the unified system
System documentation can be general-purpose and industry-specific. As for the first type, there should not be questions here. To branch systems carry the document circulation, reflecting specificity of activity of the enterprise or the organization. For example, standardization and unification of customs documents will contain materials regulating the procedures for checking and passing on the state border of exported, imported goods.
How interrelated are the materials and how the documents of both systems - functional and sectoral - relate to each other depends on many factors. In particular, their importance is predetermined by the nature of the activity of an organization. In addition, the unification and standardization of management documents does not always imply the creation of provisions on organizational, executive or administrative activities. Meanwhile, the documentation of the organizational and administrative plan, which contains the basic moments of management, administration, interaction and regulation of the work of state bodies, enterprises, units and officials is based on sectoral and functional structures.
Basic stages of unification and standardization
The problems of standardization and unification of foreign trade documents often arise because of the late allocation of a block of organizational and administrative documentation, which for such systems serves as a legal aid.
- Within the framework of the uniform documentary forms, an appropriate nomenclature is established.
- The general model for building a document system is based on the use of a form taken as a model.
- Special attention is paid to the rules of syntactical construction of documentation.
Prior to this, standardization and standardization of primary documents took place taking into account all requirements for materials at all stages of creation, filling, processing and saving. The psychophysiological capabilities of a person and the parameters of machine-technical devices were taken into account.
Features of creating standards
It should be noted that the result of the unification process was the reduction of the most frequently used templates to a single legal form. The standards developed for services, products and work have their explanation at the federal legislative level. The concept of "unification and standardization of documents" in this case is determined by the state activity on fixing norms and characteristics for repeated application voluntarily.
The task of creating standards is orderliness in the production sphere and increase of competitive qualities of the products, services or works. Standardization and unification of foreign trade documents is also aimed at achieving information and technical compatibility.
Problems associated with the unification of foreign trade documentation
In addition, the term "standard" means not only a normative content document. The law clearly specifies the mechanism of its voluntary non-mandatory application. State standards were quickly replaced by national ones. After the introduction of cardinal changes, only the problems of standardization and unification of foreign trade documents remained the same.
The issue of state standards regulating the process of compiling accompanying documentation for exported products is especially acute to this day. According to the unified system adopted by the federal law "On Technical Regulation" of 01.07.2003, the provisions present therein do not fully correspond to the unified requirements for document management, but continue to be used in large numbers today.
Role of the State Standard in the process of unification and standardization
Unification and standardization of documents - the path of the State Standard of Russia. Any all-Russian classifiers in the technical, economic, social sphere acquire legal force immediately after passing the state registration. Control over the implementation of all requirements included in separate acts is carried out by the State Standard of Russia and other bodies authorized by the state within the designated competence.
The main directions of standardization and standardization of documents are the establishment of uniform samples, templates, forms. These may be the standards required in the preparation of documents, for standards for certain types of goods and unified documentation systems. The latter is a system of materials created according to established common rules and requests. The unified documentation system contains, as a rule, the information necessary to carry out managerial functions in a specific sphere of influence.
Basic unified and standardized systems in Russia
To date, among the unified systems are:
- Structure related to documentation of organizational and administrative nature;
- A system that controls the workflow in a banking institution;
- Unification and standardization of accounting documents, as well as accounting and financial records in public sector institutions;
- Sphere of statistical documents;
- A system of documentation regulating labor issues;
- Unified documents for foreign trade.
Accordingly, each of the above systems is accompanied by its own state standard, developed by central agencies that coordinate the functioning in a particular field of activity. For example, the Ministry of Finance in Russia is responsible for creating forms for accounting and banking documentation.
Requisites and forms of documents in the process of standardization
The requisite of the document is considered to be its obligatory element, without which it is impossible to pass the procedure of official registration, registration of the material. The requisites include the signature, stamp, stamp, date, text, etc. Naturally, for each type of official document a separate set of requisites is used. At the same time, in each of the systems, unification is realized by creating an exemplary form of documents for one of the systems. Based on it, the most appropriate requisites of all documents included in a certain database are developed.
The form, as already mentioned, is a template form of the document. Such model of drawing up the document in the established sphere of application takes into account its format, sizes of fields and indents, features of creation of a structural grid and main requisites.
Unification and standardization of organizational and administrative documents facilitates the simplified use of forms in the activities of any organization, institution, industrial and manufacturing enterprise.
- Orders and orders;
Letters fix decisions of administrative and organizational issues, incl. Management, coordination and provision of activities:
- State authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation (the list of subjects includes autonomous regions and republics, whose legislation, along with the Russian, establishes the national language);
- Enterprises and associations, regardless of the form of ownership and organizational and legal activities.
GOST establishes not only the composition of requisites, but also the requirements for their registration, as well as the production, accounting, application and saving of forms with the present State Emblem of the Russian Federation and the arms of subjects. The GOST application is a schematic representation of the requisites.