During the time of human civilization there arose many settlements that became cities. But time, wars, natural disasters turned many of them into ruins. Up to now, some of them have survived. What are the oldest cities in Russia today? This question interests many.
Determine the most ancient city of the country can be very difficult: the date of the foundation of a settlement is not always known. Based on the data of the chroniclers or historians, the date can be determined only approximate. Reading the chronicles, historians pay attention to where this or that city is mentioned, with what historical events its mention is connected. The ancient cities of Russia could have had different names in those old times. Therefore, the exact date when they were erected, sometimes not recognized. But this applies to the most ancient cities. There are also official statements about the day of pledging, then there is no problem of determining the age of a historical place.
To study the issue, historians refer to the Nikon Chronicle, which was compiled in the 16th century. Information from Arab sources that are dated to the 10th century is being studied. The well-known historical work "The Tale of Bygone Years" also helps in this. Do not stop working and archaeologists who are digging and helping identify the most ancient cities in Russia. Their list is changing, there are objects, masonry walls, pavement, which give new and new information to historians. Today it is Veliky Novgorod, Staraya Ladoga, Smolensk, Murom, Pskov, Derbent, Kerch.
The history of the rise of Veliky Novgorod is still unknown. The exact date of its foundation is not known yet. All approximately. But the fact that he is part of the oldest cities in Russia is a fact. The date of Novgorod's birth is 859 year. From it, the age of the great city is counted. Today he is 1155 years old. But this is also not certain. After all, the year of its foundation was considered the date mentioned in the Nikon Chronicle: at this time the Novgorodian elder Gostomysl died. So, the city was laid much earlier.
The chronicler Nestor in the "Tale of Bygone Years" wrote about the most ancient cities of Russia. The list, which was called Lavrentievsky, indicated that before the arrival of Rurik (in 862) Novgorod had long existed. Based on it, according to the Ipatiev Chronicle, there are also ilmen Slovens who settled near the lake. They called him by their name - Ilmer. The city was founded and Novgorod was named.
During its history, Novgorod experienced many events: it was also the capital of a free state, and was captured by the Moscow, Swedish and Levon rulers. Alexander Nevsky, Novgorod prince, rebuffed the Swedes on the banks of the Neva River in 1240 and the Knights of the Teutonic Order - in 1242 on Lake Peipsi.
The oldest cities of Russia
Among the listed places, which are considered the most ancient, along with all stands and the Old Ladoga. Historians attribute this settlement to the 8th century. It is believed that this city was founded in 753. Historians suggest that it was from Ladoga that Rurik was called on to rule and became the first prince in Russia. Neighbors from the north attacked the city, and the fortress suffered destruction and fires. But in the ninth century it was surrounded not by wooden walls, but by stone ones made of limestone, and Ladoga became a reliable northern fortress - the first one in Rus.
What ancient cities of Russia can be put on a par with Ladoga and Novgorod? This is Smolensk. In chronicles it is also mentioned in 862. Through him, as well as through Ladoga, a well-known path "from the Varangians to the Greeks" passed. Smolensk has become the defense of Moscow and has withstood many wars and battles. Until now, fragments of the walls of the fortress, which was built in the 16th century, were considered fragments of the fortification technique of those times.
Murom is no less ancient city, which appeared almost simultaneously with Smolensk. This city became so called from the tribe of Murom, Finno-Ugric origin. His gaze is directed to the east: therefrom there was a constant threat of attack. That Volga-Kama Bulgars, then the Tatar-Mongols. These ancient cities of Russia, like Murom, suffered terrible devastation, and for decades they were not engaged. Only in the fourteenth century it was restored, and at the very beginning of the fifteenth century, Moore was already subordinate to Moscow.
Ancient cities can be listed endlessly, how deep the history of the country, so there are many historical places in it: Rostov the Great, Suzdal, Yaroslavl, Vladimir. But there is one city that is more than 5000 years old, and it still exists.
"Darband" - the narrow gate
No matter how many people argue about which city of Russia is the oldest, it is Derbent. This is the territory of the Dagestan Republic, but it is part of Russia. So Derbent is the most ancient city in Russia. It was located near the Caspian Sea: this is the narrow place that remained between the coast and the mountains of the Caucasus. It is worth noting that when the Derbend settlement appeared, neither Kievan Rus nor the Russian Empire existed. In the annals Derbent was mentioned in the VI century BC. E., But the settlements arose even earlier.
Today the fortress of Naryn-Kala, which is more than 2500 years old, and the ancient Juma mosque, built in the eighth century, have been preserved. Derbent controlled the Dagestan corridor through which the Great Silk Road passed. Many peoples tried to take over the city, stormed it, destroyed it. During his long history, Derbent has experienced many times both bloom and decline. The protective wall, a 40 km long fortification, has survived to this day. UNESCO considers Derbent the oldest Russian city.
But there is one more fact that is making its own corrections to the question under consideration: this is the return of the Crimean peninsula to Russia . Therefore, the city of Kerch is added to the list of ancient places.
It was located on the shore of the Strait of the same name, in the eastern part of the peninsula. It is believed that Kerch was founded more than 2600 years ago. The city preserves ancient monuments of architecture, historical objects. Excavations of archaeologists confirm the age of Kerch, which was founded by the colonists of Ancient Greece.
Conversations about what ancient cities of Russia exist in our days can last very long: the country is big, there are many interesting historical sites. The main thing is that the history of the country should be studied and remembered, and the ancient monuments - preserved for descendants.