Since the fifteenth century, the world colonial system began to form , which was caused by the emergence of technical capabilities to overcome large distances, mainly by sea. This was the reason why the remote possessions of Spain, Britain, France, Portugal and some other countries were often called overseas (English Overseas) territories. At the same time, the notion of "metropolis" arose. This state, whose flag flies over the seized foreign land.
Technique of colonization
The main reason why the mere fact of the discovery of a new island, archipelago, and sometimes the whole continent in itself meant in itself the transfer to the ownership of a monarch, was the technical superiority of the countries of Europe over the aboriginal population. Mainly, it manifested itself in the presence of effective means of suppressing resistance, in other words, guns and guns. The future metropolis used these weapons as a capture tool.
The numerical superiority of the people living on the "open" territories did not matter, the colonialists acted both by force and deceit, sometimes purchasing whole islands for a handful of glass beads and frightening the guns displeased with the volleys.
At the same time, the country, the future metropolis, could not always boast of civilization or cultural superiority. This is clearly demonstrated by numerous examples of scientific achievements and works of art, looted invaders and exhibited in the museums of London, Paris, Madrid and other capitals of the countries-owners of the colonies. The metropolitan areas and colonies of Britain, France, Belgium and other countries were correlated as acceptors and donors. Resources were pumped from India or Egypt, fueling the English economy. Diamonds Congo flowed into the treasury of the Belgian tycoons.
Colonies "on the contrary" in Russia
Originally the Greek word "colony" meant not an overseas possession, but a settlement founded by the representatives of some city (policy or metropolis) away from home. In Russia, under Catherine the Great, the Germans settled (the so-called almost all Europeans), attracted by excellent opportunities and freedom of entrepreneurship. Until the end of the thirties of the twentieth century, the German colonists lived and worked in different cities of Novorossiysk province and the Volga region. Thus, the Russian Empire owned the colonies, as it were, "on the contrary," placing foreigners within themselves, creating favorable conditions for them and supporting the national outlying areas. European countries behaved differently, preferring to rob the occupied lands.
In the middle of the twentieth world colonial system came an end. Only some states have grounds (however, very conditional) to continue to call themselves the proud word "metropolis". This is Britain with its Falkland Islands, Bermuda, Gibraltar and a number of smaller possessions, France (Clipperton, Guiana, etc.) and Denmark (Faroe Islands and Greenland).