The success of performing fire fighting missions is determined by several factors, among which are the level of team preparation, technical equipment and the conditions for conducting the operation. But the significance of these factors will be minimized if the wrong tactic of action is initially chosen. In this sense, the success of the events determines the decisive direction in the fire - 5 principles, aimed at minimizing damage and increasing the effectiveness of the fight against fire, will help to choose the optimal course of action.
The concept of firefighting plan
There are two concepts for determining the firefighting plan. The first relates directly to the owner of the facility, for which it is planned to provide protection against fire. He orders a fire extinguishing plan, which will take measures and carry out actions aimed at fighting fire and minimizing damage.
The second concept presupposes the consideration of the plan as a tactical scheme of the operation of the operational team in the context of combating the realized fire. That is, it is asserted already at the time of fixing the fact of the fire and obtaining primary information about it. Just in the course of developing this plan, and choosing the decisive direction in the fire - the 5 principles that will be discussed below, serve as the basis for deciding on the most appropriate tactics of fire extinguishing and rescue operations.
Principle one - saving people
The basic principle is the company's efforts to prevent the menace of life. It is relevant in cases when independent evacuation is impossible and third-party assistance is required. In this case, different ways of saving people in a fire can be used:
- Provide protection against direct flame effects.
- Moving to a zone protected from fire.
- Elimination of obstacles that prevent independent evacuation.
In the process of using each of these methods, different tactical techniques can also be used. For example, the movement of people is possible with the provision of individual means of protection, through the artificial creation of routes, as well as with the connection of special equipment. In most cases, it is the saving of lives that is chosen as the decisive direction in a fire - 5 principles, respectively, are subject to one, but this configuration can change during the execution of the task.
The second principle is the prevention of the threat of explosion
The second most dangerous situation is caused by the threat of an explosion. Increased thermal impact or direct contact with fire can lead to the explosion of gas cylinders, chemicals in an industrial plant, etc. From a security point of view, it is important not so much to prevent the explosion as such, but its consequences. The relevance of this principle is due to the fact that an explosion can provoke a collapse of a building or structure, which at least will result in material damage. And this is the case if there are no people in the building and on its surrounding territory. Tactics of work in accordance with this principle provides for the creation of barriers to the risk zone - for example, on the way to the same cylinders. Localization of the fire with the use of extinguishing means is carried out both within the resources of the operational team and through stationary systems of fighting fire. Usually, threats of explosions take place at industrial facilities, which can not be equipped without local fire alarms.
The third principle is the minimization of material damage
Partly this principle is related to the previous one, but the difference lies in the degree of threat. If an entire building collapses during an explosion, the loss of the strength of the structures while spreading the fire nevertheless occurs gradually. But in this case, the fire brigade should react promptly. Tactically, its actions will be aimed at minimizing the localization of the source of ignition, preventing the risk of its spread. As a rule, the part of the building is covered by fire and in accordance with the principle it is necessary to isolate it in the current zone of ignition. In the case of full coverage of the building, fire should already be given tasks of a different kind. First, the real risk of collapse is assessed, in which the possibility of evacuation of the firemen is also considered. Secondly, an operational plan is being developed, which will be used to protect against fire from neighboring buildings. At this stage, the most priority objects are chosen to concentrate the efforts of the fire group on them.
The fourth principle is the fight against intense burning
This principle of choosing firefighting tactics is preferable in cases where there is neither a threat to people, nor the risk of explosion, nor the likelihood of fire spreading to neighboring facilities. In such situations, the fire extinguishing plan focuses on the most active foci of fire. So, if a detached building is burning, then the site with the most intense burning is selected, even if there is no risk of its spread.
Principle Five - protection of neighboring objects
This principle is largely similar to the third, but it is more focused specifically on protecting buildings that are not yet covered by fire, but can be affected by the transition of a flame from a burning building. In this case, efforts are directed to the formation of barriers of various kinds, which will stop the spread of fire. Again, in the presence of opportunities to solve this problem, the local fire infrastructure is connected in the form of alarm systems with water and foam sprayers. In this way, the fire is localized and cut off from areas that are currently not covered by fire. Special attention is paid to neighboring buildings. It is also necessary to determine the most valuable object of protection, since the separation of efforts into several buildings is inefficient and as a result all buildings in the affected area can be destroyed. Priority is given to residential and industrial facilities.
Correction of decisive direction
The fire is characterized by dynamics and a rapid change in the conditions of combustion, so the actions of firefighters can vary depending on the situation. This is especially true for large-scale activities, which in some periods of extinguishment can envisage work in different directions. General recommendations on fire tactics prescribe to the leaders of the units already at the time of setting the current direction of the fight against fire to bear in mind the subsequent task. For example, after the evacuation of employees of a chemical plant, firemen should be ready to localize the source of ignition with the prevention of its spread to the location of hazardous from the point of view of the explosion of substances.
As a rule, each direction is controlled by a separate leader, evaluating and correcting the current actions of the team. As the situation changes, the chiefs give new introductory, optimally dispersing forces. At the same time there are obviously predictable fires, the fight against which is carried out in one direction. These include peat fires, which do not involve the transition to buildings and, in most cases, do not pose a threat to the lives of people. Of course, this applies to situations where surveillance services make timely efforts to localize smoldering foci.
Errors in choosing the wrong direction
Wrong direction is a tactic of actions that involves a violation in the definition of priorities. For example, we can consider the same case with peat bogs. A group of tourists in the forest found themselves in a closed ring formed by a smoldering fire. Taking into account the fact that peat fires are spreading slowly, the team leader chooses as a priority direction the fight with the most intense and close to the group of the fire, believing that people have time. The correct tactic in this case is the choice of the weakest part of the burning as the future "bridge" for the exit of tourists.
Often, such errors are made because of external distortion of priorities, which seems quite logical. In particular, the basic principles for choosing a decisive direction in a fire dictate to the leaders to concentrate their efforts on the possible line of spreading the fire to the nearest building. At the same time, the team is divided into two camps, which, according to the chief, will solve two tasks - to extinguish the main burning building and prevent the transition of the flame to the house untouched by fire. In some cases, such an approach can justify itself, but as a universal rule of action, it is certainly losing.
The rules for determining tactical actions are oriented not only to saving people and preserving property. The preservation of human life regardless of the situation - of course, the decisive direction in the fire - the 5 principles in the aggregate, while not taking into account other installations, which are guided by firefighters. In particular, if there is no threat of life, explosion or spread of fire, then the principle of minimizing the resources of the team itself can be chosen as a priority tactic. If there is time to fight with a localized hearth, then, for example, cheaper consumables of quenching, the minimum composition of a group with equipment, etc., can be used.