Masculinity is the key to the success of a strong half of humanity. Many of the men intensively train the muscles, so that the body becomes attractive. Nevertheless, it is not everyone who is able to grow biceps. For the increase in muscle mass in the body meets the sex hormone - testosterone. Thanks to him, the strong half shows characteristic signs of masculinity. The increase or decrease in the amount of testosterone becomes noticeable in adolescence, when young men have hair on the body and face, there is a change in the tone of the voice, as well as the growth of muscle mass. The hormone is present not only in men, but also in women. Naturally, its content in the body of girls is much lower. Many young people, having learned about the possibility to change their physique with the help of hormonal drugs, are asking: testosterone - what is this substance? The answer to it can be obtained from an endocrinologist who will explain in detail why a steroid is needed and in what situations its use is required.
Testosterone - what is it?
What are the functions of the hormone?
Testosterone, which produces testes, is responsible for many processes occurring in the body of a strong half of humanity. First of all, the hormone promotes the growth, development and functioning of the sexual structures in men. The second important goal of testosterone is the formation of protein molecules. As a result, there is an increased growth of the muscular apparatus, which distinguishes the male physique. The next function of testosterone is its effect on fat metabolism. It consists in the distribution of adipocytes according to the male type. In addition, the hormone affects erythropoiesis. As a result, in men, compared with women, the level of hemoglobin is higher. Also, increased blood circulation is necessary for them to form and maintain an erection. Due to the fact that the regulation of the sex hormone is associated with the central nervous system, it affects the libido in men.
Functions of testosterone secreted by the adrenal glands
As you know, in the human body there are 2 sources of male sex hormone. Testosterone, which secretes the cortical layer of the adrenal glands, is present in all people. Its production is much less than in testicles. The functions of the "adrenal" testosterone are also somewhat different. First, the peak of his action is due to the period of puberty. At this time, under the influence of testosterone, the boys have a characteristic hairline on the body and face, the voice's timbre changes. In addition, during puberty, the male libido sharply increases. Functions of testosterone in the body of girls are slightly different, there the hormone does not act as a stimulant for the development of the reproductive system.
Effects of androgens in women
At the weaker sex testosterone is excreted only in the adrenal cortex. His peak is also in the youth period. Functions of the hormone:
- Participation in the formation of protein. This action of testosterone, as in men, contributes to the development of the muscular system.
- Strengthening of bone tissue.
- Participation in the work of sebaceous glands is the maintenance of the purity of the skin.
- Improvement of the hematopoietic function.
- Participation in the formation and growth of follicles - in spite of the fact that the hormone is responsible for the male reproductive system, it has little influence on the menstrual cycle of women.
- Increased libido.
- Strengthening the emotional background - reduces the stress of the stress, promotes a sense of humor.
Testosterone in the body
Quantitative fluctuations in the level of the hormone
Pathological changes in testosterone levels
The change in the amount of the hormone indicates a violation of its regulation. Increased testosterone in men or women may indicate a defeat of the hypothalamic-pituitary system, the cortical layer of the adrenal glands or sexual glands. The same can be said about the decrease in the amount of the hormone. The main reasons for increasing testosterone levels are tumors, which can have different localization. If there is a suspicion of a neoplasm, a thorough diagnosis should be made. First of all, it is necessary to do an x-ray or MRI of the brain and ultrasound of the adrenal glands. Most often, changes in these organs lead to an increase in testosterone levels.
In addition, an increase in the production of the hormone can lead to a testicular tumor. In order to reveal it, palpation of male sexual glands is carried out, after which instrumental methods of research are produced. The decrease in testosterone may be due to age-related changes (most often observed after 40 years), sedentary lifestyle, overweight, scrotal injury, cryptorchidism, inflammatory process in the testicles.
Symptoms of enhanced hormone production
Increased testosterone in men can be observed at any age. However, this change is most often noticed in children. Blood for testosterone should be taken in childhood, when the adolescent period has not yet come. In adult men, the increase in hormone levels is more difficult to notice. The main features are:
- Excessive growth of hair on the body and face.
- Increased libido, frequent and prolonged erection.
- Low voice timbre.
- Aggressiveness and mood change.
- Developed musculature.
Signs of an increased level of testosterone in women - this is hirsutism, low voice, acne, broad shoulders, a man-like physique.
Products containing a hormone
With small quantitative fluctuations, you can independently control testosterone. Products containing a hormone are used in the preparation of many dishes, so it is very important to monitor your diet. These include meat, nuts, sea food, greens, red berries. Among the fruits in which there is a lot of testosterone, note pineapple, melon, orange, apricots and peaches. The hormone is also present in vegetables (tomatoes, aubergines, zucchini and cabbage) and vegetable oil. In order to reduce testosterone, you need to limit yourself in the use of these products. Those who have hormone produced in small quantities, you can also adjust its level through diet. To increase testosterone, you need to eat as much protein food, in particular, lean meat and vegetable oil. If it is impossible to achieve the proper level of the hormone with the help of a diet resort to medical treatment.
Testosterone in tablets
With the current use of steroids has become the norm for many young people. Some of them are ready to do anything to gain muscle mass. Nevertheless, it is not possible to take testosterone in tablets unnecessarily. It is necessary only in case of a deficiency of the hormone, which can not be compensated by diet. If the test for the content of testosterone was found to be deficient, then it is necessary to contact the endocrinologist. Only a doctor can determine whether to take a hormone, and in what quantities. Indications for the use of testosterone in men:
- Delayed puberty in boys.
- Weak development of male organs.
- Condition after removal of testicles (post-stroke syndrome).
- Violation of the formation of spermatozoa.
- Poor quality of seminal fluid.
- Infertility of unknown genesis.
In some cases, testosterone is prescribed to women, most often it must be used in combination with female sex hormones - estrogens. Indications for use are: osteoporosis, uterine myoma, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), breast cancer.
Medications containing the male sex hormone
What medications should I use to increase testosterone? Preparations containing male sex hormone are produced under different names. The dosage form can be presented by tablets, a solution for injections, a gel for external use. The most common of these are drugs: Testosterone propionate, Andriol, Nebido, Omnadren 250, Sustanon-250. All of them are created on the basis of hormone esters and have the same indications for use. Abuse of testosterone drugs is extremely dangerous! With an overdose of the hormone, testicular atrophy can occur. This is due to the fact that the sex glands have feedback from the hypothalamic-pituitary system. Among the side effects of testosterone preparations are puffiness, muscle pain, nausea, acne, arterial hypertension, as well as adenoma and prostate cancer. If these symptoms appear, you should cancel the medication or reduce its dose.