The incidence of stomach cancer (RJ) is very high in Japan, Iceland, Chile. Of great importance in the development of the disease is nutrition: the intake of high-calorie, smoked, salted food is the main risk factor. In contrast, the use of vitamins and fiber is a protective feature. At present, the carcinogenic effect of Helicobacter pylori, the Epstein-Barr virus, has been proven. The current causes of risk are smoking and drinking.
It is very important to know the main signs of the disease. Early symptoms of stomach cancer appear only if the tumor develops sufficiently, when the lumen of the organ narrows, its volume decreases and evacuation is disturbed. Manifestation of RJ can begin with bleeding or signs of severe intoxication caused by the decay of the tumor. The main symptom of stomach cancer depends on the localization of the process with the type of growth, the histological pattern, the involvement of neighboring organs, the effect on the entire body.
Most often, the RJ is manifested by a violation of the patency of the organ. This symptom of stomach cancer occurs earlier in the localization in the cardiac or pyloric department and almost never in the body of the stomach. When spreading to the esophagus there are difficulties in swallowing: first a solid, and then a liquid food. This phenomenon is accompanied by heartburn, eructation with fetid odor, exhaustion, loss of body weight. This symptom is more often observed with endophytic tumor growth.
The pain symptom of stomach cancer is more often observed when the tumor is located in the upper third of the organ and is associated with increased peristalsis as a result of the narrowing of the lumen. The pain is localized behind the sternum or between the shoulder blades, which is very similar to cardiac pathology. Pain in the left hypochondrium occurs with cancer of the bottom of the stomach. Usually, this ailment is diagnosed only in the late stages.
An important symptom of stomach cancer is a palpable formation in the abdomen. Basically, it is determined when the tumor is located in the lower third of the organ. With other locations, palpating cancer is difficult.
The general symptom of gastric cancer is characterized by the so-called small symptoms syndrome:
- Decreased appetite;
- "Gastric" discomfort;
- Weight loss.
Summarizing, we can identify the main symptoms of the disease, it is: pain, indigestion, "gastric" discomfort, anemia, violation of evacuation.
The spread of the tumor occurs hematogenously into the liver, lungs, bones; Lymphogenically - to the navel, metastasis of Crookenberg. When metastasizing on the peritoneum, ascites occurs.
Diagnostic measures are aimed at detecting a tumor, determining its local distribution and metastasis, assessing the overall somatic state. To detect and determine the development of cancer using radiography and endoscopy of the stomach. Taking a piece of the tumor allows us to determine its histological structure, clear boundaries, the degree of germination of the organ wall. To determine metastasis, lung radiography, angiography, MRI, diagnostic laparoscopy are used.
To achieve the greatest effect, a set of therapeutic measures is used: combination of surgical intervention with removal of the lymphocyte, radiotherapy and chemotherapy.