Today, when different technologies develop at immeasurable speed, viewing swimming competitions from another country is not new. Thousands, and even millions of viewers worry about the athletes. It seems that swimming as a sport has arisen recently. In principle, it is. Of course, people learned to stay on the water and even move around it for a long time, but swimming became a sport later. Among other things, it is worth noting that it is useful for the body. An excellent method for losing weight is used by many as the most simple. Now this sport is gaining popularity. Beautiful artistic swimming, spectacular competitions in free style can not be left without attention. When and where did swimming become a sport and became so popular? What are the different types and styles? What is the characteristic of swimming as a sport? All this you will learn from this article.
Scientists have found out that even in ancient times arose swimming. As a sport or as a necessity, it is not known. Pictures were found on the walls of caves, which are supposedly dated to 5000 BC. E. Ancient people noticed that many animals are able to move on water, and have adopted this ability. As you might guess, the first style was the way of swimming "dog-like." He existed for a rather long time, until he was replaced by a breastache. And that became the basis for all subsequent innovations. In ancient civilizations, swimming began to acquire special popularity. The first written mention refers to 2000 BC. E. It is also known that in ancient Rome, swimming became the basis for the training of athletes, including those who participated in the Olympic Games. But the history of swimming as a sport takes its origin from the turn of the XV-XVI centuries. It was then that the first competitions began.
Thus, swimming appeared quite a long time ago. Even ancient people used it to travel on water. Swimming developed, new styles appeared, and it gradually became a sport. As it is not strange, the history of creating a voyage as a sport reminds one of running. It was also used at first as a necessity, and only after a large amount of time running became a sport. Swimming is one of the most famous and popular activities today. Many people use it as an exercise for weight loss and recovery.
History of styles
As already mentioned, at the very beginning, when the origin of the voyage, it had only one style - "dog-like". However, then came the breast, on the basis of which new species were invented. The next style was lateral. The feet looked like scissors when swimming. Then people began to swim with saplings, which made it possible to develop a greater speed in comparison with others. Next John Tredzhen in 1783 invented a style, called his name. Then the competitions were quite popular, and the new method allowed to establish many world records, including its creator. Then, finally, the crawl appeared. He was brought to England by Richard Cavilles from Australia. Soon the style was recognized as the fastest, which to this day is. Today he is very popular.
Crawl is a style of swimming on the stomach. When it is used, the left and right parts of the body move alternately. Hands make a stroke along the axis in turn, while the legs rise and fall. Complicated in comparison with other styles of technology. The swimmer's face must be in the water and rise beyond its limits only for the performance of an inspiration. Krol is rightly considered to be the fastest type of sailing. At competitions there is a concept of "free style", in which athletes have the right to swim the way they want, but everyone chooses exactly krol.
Due to the fact that the head is lowered under water, the hands can make large strokes, and this is positively displayed at speed. If you compare the rabbit with swimming on your back, then the first is faster , that's why. When compared to a butterfly, the latter also loses due to the fact that the hands mainly work, and the case does not help. Uniform acceleration, possible only in the rabbit, helps athletes to overcome long distances at speed, without tire of it.
It turns out that the krol was born a long time ago. Originally it was used by Indians. And Europe met him in 1844, when the Americans defeated the English swimmers. Defeated, but proud athletes did not want to use the new style, because they considered it "barbarous" because of the large number of sprays. The history of the origin of swimming as a sport, in particular, styles, had such strange moments.
After the Australian rabbit appeared American, thanks to the completion. It is the latter today that is the "freestyle". The initial position in the rabbit is "sweating", the swimmers are turned face down, legs are straightened, arms are extended upwards.
As already mentioned, it was the breasts that became the transition from the style "dog-like" and practically the basis for all the others. Swimming as a sport could not exist without it. The species was born a long time ago: the first image of people using a style resembling a breaststroke was discovered in the Egyptian "Cave of Swimmers". Painting refers to around 9000 BC. E. Also, the famous Assyrian figure depicts a soldier using this method, but the image was created between 1292-1225. BC. E. The Dane Nicolas Vinman in 1538 was one of the first to describe the breaststroke in his book. The well-known "frog kick" with feet was used only in the XIX century.
At various competitions in the style of breaststroke, Russian and Soviet athletes often won. In the Olympic Games, the style was included only in 1904, then the swim took place at 402 m., Only men participated. Then swimming as an Olympic sport began its development. Already at the following games, the distance was reduced to 200 m. Since 1924, competitions for women have been held for the same distance. And in 1968, athletes began to compete at 100 m.
Butterfly is a swimming on the stomach, one of the most difficult styles. Tedious and complex. The name comes from the word "butterfly". Indeed, some similarities can be found, mainly because of the characteristic strokes of hands. Unlike the rabbit, the hands make strokes at the same time, lifting the body above the water. At the same time, a deep breath takes place. The legs along with the pelvis move in the form of waves, giving acceleration. Although the performance is one of the most difficult, yet the butterfly is the second fastest stele. Its main difference from rabbits is that the acceleration in it is uneven due to sharp strokes of hands.
Interestingly, a butterfly is an improved breaststroke. At first swimmers realized that for greater speed it makes sense to raise your hands above the water. Movement with the body and legs was subsequently replaced by a more convenient and natural.
As already mentioned, the technique in butterfly is extremely complex and requires proper execution. Many newcomers fear this. To learn how to combine movements with arms and legs, as well as breathing in with exhalations, is quite difficult, so many people turn to krol. If in most other styles it is precisely the technically correct execution, then in butterfly, besides this, physical strength is important.
It is difficult to wave the motion of the body, which is present (if only known styles are taken into account) only in the butterfly. Therefore, such swimming as a sport for children is not the best option.
Equipment and standards
For swimming with any style, the equipment is the same: a hat, glasses, swimming trunks or a swimsuit (for men or women, respectively), wetsuits are often used. They began to appear in the 2000s. And are divided into types: from the neck to the ankles, from the neck to the knees, hydrostands, shorts for swimming. In 2010, FINA (International Swimming Federation) banned synthetics. So now only textiles are used.
Swimming as a sport today is held in 50- or 25-meter pools. At many competitions pass the breaststroke and crawl. For example, at the Summer Olympics, the World Championship, the Universiade, the World Cup. The latter is held annually.
- Krol (he is also a freestyle): 50 m, 100 m, 200 m, 400 m, 800 m, 1500 m;
- Butterfly: 50 m, 100 m, 200 m;
- Brass: 50 m, 100 m, 200 m;
- On the back: 50 m, 100 m, 200 m.
What to choose
Those who are just beginning to engage in swimming, not necessarily professionally, it is worth trying krol. But people who do not even know how to stay on the water must start with a "dog-like" style. It is he who, if understood, is the basis of all the others. Then, accordingly, you need to go to a rabbit or a breaststroke, on which you can stop.
Pool or sea
If you choose between the sea and the basin, there can be no definite answer. But the first option is not available to most Russians or is possible only in the summer.
If you want to go swimming professionally, you should go to the coach in the pool. There you can train all year round and it is easy to learn how to keep and move on water from scratch. However, for amateur classes, you can choose and open ponds. So, in the sea waves and wind create natural barriers, and water has a healing effect. If the pool needs to pay for a ticket, then open water bodies are in the public domain. Everyone chooses because of opportunities and preferences. However, the artificially created pool is safe, in most cases there are provided lifeguards. And in open water, there is a possibility of not cope with the current and drown. The ideal option is to combine.
That's such an interesting sport story. Swimming is very popular, but there are other disciplines to which it has a direct relationship. Next, the two most popular ones will be disassembled.
Swimming, cycling, running as one sport is called triathlon. The name speaks for itself. Sports appeared not so long ago, its beginning goes back to 1920-1930, when in France there was an analogue of today's triathlon La Course des Debrouillards. At that time the race took 3 km, the bicycle - 12, and the voyage was carried across the canal of the Marne. Unfortunately, since 1930, there has been no mention of the triathlon until 1974, when in the US a group of fellow athletes neither united nor organized a club where everyone trained together. They represented several sports, namely running, biking and swimming. Also friends began to organize competitions. Thus, the first competitions were held on September 25, 1974, in which 46 athletes participated. In the beginning, the cycling race took 180.2 km, running - 42.2 km; Swimming - 3,86 km.
Participants argued for a long time about what kind of sport requires maximum endurance. As a result, an article was found that said that cyclist Eddie Merckx had the highest rate of oxygen consumption. And this sport was recognized as requiring maximum endurance. Triathlon has won so much popularity that many seriously think about including it in the program of the Olympic Games. The competitions are usually held according to the standard: 1.5 km / 40 km / 10 km. The standard was developed by the director of triathlon racing Jim Curl in the mid-80's.
Perhaps, synchronized swimming as a sport is one of the most beautiful disciplines. Usually only women participate, but recently men have also joined. The main thing in synchronized swimming is a smooth performance by the team, combining diving and jumping. At the same time, the physical load is enormous. It is necessary to spend a lot of time in training to achieve high results. Russian athletes are leading in this sport, all competitors compete for their training.
However, in addition to the standard technical and physical difficulties, there is also a special one: it is difficult to breathe during the performance. Constant, and often even long dives under the water require a delay in breathing for a large amount of time. In order to protect the lungs, athletes wear special clamps on their noses.
But where does synchronous swimming originate as a sport?
As you know, in Greece was created a huge number of disciplines. And synchronized swimming takes its origin from there, then a group of boys and girls led dances on the water. Only at the end of the XIX century. It was the beginning of synchronized swimming. Then in England were created groups of swimmers, men who performed a variety of figures in the water. And the first competitions were organized in 1891 in Berlin. Then artistic swimming, as it was then called, began its development. And in 1952 there were demonstration performances at the Olympics, after which the sport was named synchronized swimming. In the same year, an appropriate committee was created in FINA. And in 1958 the first international competitions were held. Synchronized swimming was included in the program of the Olympic Games only in 1984.
Rich and varied swimming as a sport. History and development go back to ancient times. Today, swimming is gaining popularity among all inhabitants of the earth. Everyone can find what they like more, since there are a lot of species. Synchronized swimming is most beautiful, the triathlon is rich in different disciplines, and the usual competitions remain classics. Many are engaged in amateur swimming, parents give their children in the section. The history of swimming as a sport continues its active development today.