The structure of federal executive bodies in most countries of the world, where the federal administrative and territorial structure has settled, is determined by the constitution, and therefore does not depend on the results of parliamentary and presidential elections. Such independence is achieved mainly due to the fact that at the legislative level the functions of the state bureaucracy (the system of ministerial or federal control) and, strictly speaking, political management, are divided, which varies depending on the election results. At the same time, federal executive bodies are ministries that have been assigned the functions of defining policy principles in a particular economic field, monitoring and monitoring functions, as well as powers to conduct analytical and research work. Simply put, we are talking about the structure of the federal government, the policy of the party whose program won in the current parliamentary and / or presidential elections.
The structure of the federal executive bodies of the Russian Federation is determined by several other principles. First, given that Russia is a presidential republic, the structure of political domination is dependent on the results of the election of the head of state and can vary depending on the goals and objectives of the policy pursued by him. It is clear that the goals and tasks themselves are not a constant and can be adjusted both throughout the entire election cycle (presidential, parliamentary elections), and depending on the internal political situation. And the system of bureaucratic management is one of the key components of politics. Secondly, the very structure of federal executive bodies includes both ministries and agencies (the federal government) and their local representation (regional offices), as well as a combination of state companies and firms that implement state contracts and are subordinate to their "own" ministry . Such a complex system has been preserved since Soviet times and has not changed much in the last 20 years.
The current structure of federal executive bodies is outlined in general terms by two documents - the relevant decrees of the President of the Russian Federation of August 22, 1998 and from October 16, 2001. The proposed model of political power can be assessed as hierarchical:
- The federal government, which includes 24 ministries;
- Ministry (as separate political and administrative structures);
- State committees (10 in all, have ministerial powers);
- Federal commissions (3 structural units, serve as a kind of "liaison" between the Government and Parliament);
- Federal services (15 autonomous structures, not formally included in the Government, but having the powers of ministries);
- National agencies (9 structural units responsible for the development of strategic programs);
- Federal structures (accountable to the President of the Russian Federation). This refers to the so-called "power" bloc of the Government - the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the FSB, the Ministry of Defense, etc. In other words, the structure of federal executive bodies presupposes the presence of a presidential bloc, which includes 16 ministries and departments. However, considering that the personal composition of the government does not depend on the results of the parliamentary elections and is appointed by the decrees of the heads of state, the current model of state power is de facto fully subordinated to the President of the Russian Federation.
It is interesting that the powers of local self-government are regulated by the relevant law, but they are not clearly defined, although they are administratively subordinated to regional (republican) structures. In this regard, some analysts are forced to talk about regional administrations or local authorities, financially and politically dependent on the federal center.