Waste and garbage processing is not only a useful business for the environment and society as a whole, but also the opportunity to earn extra money.
The importance of processing production for society
And in fact, garbage is raw material that literally rolls under your feet. Recycling of garbage as a business can be attributed to a socially significant sphere. Benefits from the implementation of this type of activity is not only felt in the purse of the entrepreneur, but around becomes purer. An appropriate business plan with a high probability can not only receive approval from the municipal authorities, but there is an opportunity to receive grants and subsidies from the budget.
Therefore, as an optimal solution, you can choose two areas of activity: to integrate the refining stage into the existing production cycle or to build a separate garbage processing plant. So, consider everything in order.
Types of waste for processing
Various types of waste can be recycled. It is on their choice and depends on the implementation of subsequent stages of production start-up. The main types of secondary raw materials include:
- Waste paper (paper and cardboard);
- Rubber products (for example, tires);
- Plastic and polymers;
- Glass containers and glass fight;
- Sawdust and other wood waste;
- Ferrous and non- ferrous metals.
Stages of the production process
The entire production process consists of several stages. Therefore, the entrepreneur needs to decide: whether his company will only sort and process the garbage in order to obtain semi-finished products (materials that can become raw materials in another production), whether it will be a "closed loop" and the output will be a finished product. As for semi-finished products, you can give examples: from automobile tires, rubber crumb is obtained, of glass - special granules, and from polymers - small pressed blocks. As a ready product it is possible to note pellets obtained from wood waste, chipboard is produced from sawdust, and toilet paper is obtained from waste paper.
By the way, I would like to dwell on the business of processing paper waste more, since its implementation is an excellent opportunity to save the life of many trees. From the received raw materials it is possible to receive two kinds of a ready product: a letter paper and a cardboard. And the processing of cardboard - a fairly profitable and quickly recouped production process.
Technical equipment of the garbage processing process
So, the entrepreneur decided on the production orientation of his business. The next important step is garbage processing technology. To do this, you need to purchase and appropriate equipment. If we consider a universal garbage processing plant, it will require significant costs at the very beginning of the organization of this business. At the same time, the manually operated machine and the automated lines differ significantly in cost.
Still, there will be equipment for processing garbage of one kind. His list is directly dependent on the choice of production specifics.
Car tire recycling equipment
For example, when recycling tires you need this equipment:
- For their cutting - separate machines for cutting the sides, cutting the tires into separate tapes, squeezing the ring, etc.
- For grinding and subsequent separation - the machine for breaking, the rollers for processing the obtained chips already in crumb, magnetic separator and belt conveyor.
As a result, the resulting rubber chips can be widely used as an additive to asphalt during the repair of the pavement. This semi-finished product can be sold quite successfully to road repairers.
Equipment for processing of domestic and wood waste products
If it is planned to process household garbage, for example, plastic bottles, then in this case it is necessary to purchase equipment for:
- Cleaning and washing;
- Granulation and production of plastic flakes;
- Pressing of whole bottles into briquettes.
The basic set of equipment (machines and devices) can cost the entrepreneur up to 500 thousand rubles, the automatic line - at least 1 million rubles.
When processing this type of debris it is necessary to take into account the fact that the bottles must be carefully sorted taking into account the color and type of polymer.
To date, the most accessible equipment remains for the processing of wood waste (pellets), because due to its use, the business entity can receive immediately the finished product, rather than semi-finished products or raw materials. This is the technological process of the so-called "closed cycle", and mini machines perform absolutely all the stages of the production process: from careful grinding to granulation. And their cost is quite affordable - up to 300 thousand rubles. Finished products in the form of briquettes is a fuel for boiler houses and domestic boilers.
Execution of necessary documents
If recycling of garbage is considered as a business, it already refers to the production activity, for which it is necessary to issue the appropriate license. It can be obtained in Rosprirodnadzor both as an individual entrepreneur and as a legal entity, subject to all necessary requirements. Among them, one should single out the presence:
- Territory and the corresponding premises necessary for the organization of this production. Also, such an important moment as storage of garbage should be taken into account. According to the sanitary norms, the distance from the residential area must not be less than 600 m.
- The necessary equipment is the declared specialization.
- Certified vehicles for the transport of waste.
- Inmates of employment contracts with employees (training of personnel is mandatory).
At registration of this license it is necessary to show: the project documentation, the corresponding sanction санэпидстанции, the conclusion of the Ministry of Emergency Measures, Rostehnadzor, Rospotrebnadzor and the contract of rent or documents on the ground. Each separate permit is issued not for free and costs about 1,5-2 thousand rubles. Also at this stage, there may be costs for cleaning up territory and premises.
The period of passing the procedure for obtaining a license is from a week to several months. It should be noted that separate licenses are required for each type of activity: collection, transportation, storage and processing of waste.
Thus, all necessary permits have been received, the premises have been prepared, the equipment has been delivered and installed. Therefore, it's time to start recruiting. In other words, it is necessary to organize directly the production process itself.
Provision of raw materials production
Recycling of garbage as a business should include such an important moment as getting recycled materials. In this case, there are several options that differ from each other depending on the type of raw material chosen.
If the processing of construction waste is planned, then it can be taken at the appropriate facilities or in carpentry workshops. At any construction site there is a constant problem with garbage disposal. And if the entrepreneur offers self-export, then such raw materials can be obtained for a pittance (there are only costs for the organization of transportation).
Obtaining car tires can also be arranged with a minimum of investment. For example, it is easy to negotiate with tire service and service stations. Recycled paper can be obtained from stores that have a lot of packaging and packaging, as well as institutions with active workflow.
However, if we are talking about the recycling of domestic waste, then in this case things are somewhat more complicated. Since the population is involved here, it is possible to organize appropriate waste reception points, to conclude special agreements with management companies. This may require special containers, in which separate waste collection will be carried out.
Another option for obtaining household waste is the organization of sites for their reception and storage. Such points should be located in residential areas, so that the population could benefit from garbage disposal for a small fee, rather than throw it into the tank. Such a point must be equipped with scales.
Advantages and disadvantages of business
Recycling of garbage as a business has certain advantages and disadvantages.
So, to advantages it is possible to carry:
- High profitability, which is a huge advantage, as it contributes to making a good profit.
- Respect and the "green road" on the part of state bodies, as the environment is cleared, and dumps become smaller.
However, like any production, there are a number of shortcomings, among which it is necessary to identify the main ones:
- Some difficulties at the initial stage. As it was shown above, it takes several months to process all necessary documentation.
- Use of manual labor. In this case, a competent system of employee motivation must be thought through.
- Ensuring a stable supply of raw materials, as well as determining the markets for finished products.
Despite all the shortcomings, which are ultimately presented only as difficulties, this type of business deserves the attention of the business sector, since it can benefit not only the business entity, but also the environment and people. Therefore, economic entities, when expressing a desire to engage in the processing of garbage, should be encouraged by state bodies.