The Azov Sea in Russia became known in the 1st century AD. E. Our ancestors referred to it as the Blue Sea. Later, after the Tmutarakan Principality was formed, it received a new name - Russian. With the fall of this principality the Azov Sea was renamed repeatedly. It was called Mayutis, Salakar, Samakush, etc. At the beginning of the 13th century, the designation Saksinsky Sea appeared. The Tatar-Mongol conquerors added to the list. They called it Balyk-dengiz (in translation - "fish sea"), as well as Chabak-dengiz (bream, chabak sea). According to some reports, as a result of the transformation, the word "chabak" turned into "basics", from where the today's name comes. However, these conjectures are not substantiated by anything significant.
The most authentic is the origin of the modern name from the city of Azov. Only during the famous Azov campaigns conducted by Peter I, this name was fixed to the reservoir.
Salinity of the Sea of Azov before and after regulation of the Don
First of all, due to the inflow of water from rivers (amounting to 12% of the total volume of water), as well as the difficulties of exchange with the Black Sea, hydrochemical features of such a body of water as the Sea of Azov are formed. Salinity was three times less than the average salinity of the ocean, before the regulation of the Don. From 1 ppm to 10.5 and 11.5 (respectively, at the mouth of the Don, in the central part and near the Kerch Strait) its magnitude was changed. However, after the Tsimlyansk hydroelectric complex was established, the salinity of the Azov Sea began to increase sharply, making up to 13 ppm in the central part. Rarely, 1% of the seasonal fluctuations of the values are achieved.
Water of the Azov Sea today
A little salt contains in its water the Sea of Azov. Salinity is the main factor, because of which it easily freezes. Before the advent of icebreakers, the reservoir of interest to us was not very good from December to mid-April. The water resources of the Azov Sea as a sea route were therefore used only in the warm season.
Practical all the most significant rivers flowing into it were blocked by dams during the 20th century in order to create reservoirs. This fact led to the fact that the discharge of silt and fresh water significantly decreased.
Basically, from the influx of fresh water from various rivers, atmospheric precipitation falling over the sea, as well as from incoming Black Sea waters and their flow to the drain and evaporation through the Kerch Strait, the water regime of such a body of water as the Sea of Azov depends, the salinity of which interests us. His water balance looks like the following . Kuban, Don and other rivers that flow into this sea, bring a total of 38.8 cubic kilometers of fresh water. 13.8 is on the surface of its average perennial amount of precipitation from the atmosphere. Annually, approximately 31.2 cubic meters of water flows through the Kerch Strait . Km. This is the resources of the Black Sea. From Sivash across the strait called Thin, in addition, comes to the sea of about 0.3 cubic kilometers. 84.1 km is the total arrival of water. The flow rate consists of the amount of evaporation from the surface (about 35.5 cubic km) of flow through the above-mentioned Kerch Strait (47.4 cubic km), as well as flow to Sivash through the Tonky Strait (1.4 cubic km). That is, it is also equal to 84.1.
The ratio of river runoff to its total volume
In this regard, the ratio to the total volume of the sea of river flow is the largest of all other seas on the planet. If the flow of atmospheric and river waters over the evaporation of them from the surface was exceeded, this would lead to an increase in the level and increasing desalination if there were no water exchange with the Black Sea, as a result of which a salinity favorable for the habitat of commercial fish was established.
Distribution of salinity of the Azov waters
It is now distributed in the present time in such a pond as the Sea of Azov, salinity. It reaches 17.5% at the depths of the Prikerchen district. It is here that the most salty water comes from the Black Sea. Here the salinity is 17.5%. The central part of this parameter is homogeneous. This figure is 12-12.5% here. Only a small area has 13%. The salinity of water in the Taganrog Bay to the mouth of the Don (the river that flows into the Sea of Azov) falls to 1.3%.
In the beginning of summer and in the spring, due to the melting of ice, as well as a significant inflow of river waters into the sea, salinity slightly decreases. In winter and autumn, it is approximately the same from the surface to the bottom. The greatest salinity of the Azov Sea water is observed in Sivash, a separate shallow bay, and the smallest in the Taganrog Bay.
Depth of the Azov Sea
The Sea of Azov is flat. It is a shallow water body with low slopes of the coast.
The deepest depth of the Sea of Azov does not usually exceed 15 meters, and the average depth is about 8. The depths of up to 5 meters occupy the territory of more than half of its area. The volume of the sea is also small, it is 320 cubic meters. Let's say for comparison that almost 2 times in this parameter it surpasses the Aral Sea. Almost 11 times more Azov Black, and in volume - as much as 1678 times.
The Sea of Azov, however, is not so small. For example, it would accommodate two such European states as Luxembourg and the Netherlands. The greatest length of this sea is 380 kilometers, and the width is 200. 2,686 kilometers is the total length that the coastline has.
Quite simply is the underwater relief of this sea. In general, the depths increase gradually and slowly as they move away from the coast. Characteristics of the Azov Sea from the point of view of the relief is the following. In the center of it are the deepest depths. The bottom is practically flat. The Azov Sea consists of several bays, the largest of which are Temryuk, Taganrog, and Sivash, which is very isolated. The latter is more correct to be considered a liman. There are practically no large islands on the Azov Sea. There is a series of shallows here, which are partly flooded with water. They are located near the coast. For example, this is the Turtle Island, Biruchiy Island and others.
This is the main characteristic of the Azov Sea from the point of view of salinity, depth and relief.
Wellness at sea
Since, as we have already mentioned, the Azov Sea is very shallow, the water remains warm throughout the summer months. It is always several degrees warmer than, for example, in the Black. A mild climate and wonderful weather make the resorts located on the coast optimal for recreation.
The water of this sea is considered curative. In addition, the sand also contains many substances that are beneficial to the human body. Water has a lot of useful chemical elements, which perfectly penetrate the process of bathing into the body through the surface of the skin.
Bathing in the sea, in addition, is an excellent hydromassage. Moderate and stable mode of solar radiation, which is typical for the Azov Sea, allows you to take solar bath courses regularly. An excellent place for this - the beaches of the Azov Sea.
From all this we can conclude that the reservoir of interest to us is an excellent place for recovery. Rest here is suitable for the prevention of various cardiovascular diseases, as well as affect positively on the respiratory system of the body, increase its tone.