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Russia's gas pipelines: a map and a diagram. Gas pipelines from Russia to Europe

Pipeline transportation carries out the movement of such important cargo as oil and natural gas. Pipelines in Russia have more than half a century of history. Construction began with the development of oil fields in Baku and Grozny. Today's map of Russia's gas pipelines has nearly 50,000 km of main pipelines, through which most of the Russian oil is pumped.

History of Russian gas pipelines

Pipeline gas transportation in Russia began to develop actively in 1950, which was due to the development of new fields and the construction of an oil refinery in Baku. Already by 2008, the amount of oil and oil products transported reached 488 million tons. In comparison with 2000, the indicators increased by 53%.

Every year the gas pipelines of Russia (the scheme is updated and reflects all the main lines) is growing. If in 2000 the length of the gas pipeline was 61 thousand km, in 2008 it was already 63 thousand km. By 2012, the main gas pipelines of Russia were significantly expanded. The map showed about 250 thousand km of the pipeline. Of these, 175,000 km were the length of the gas pipeline, 55,000 km were the length of the oil pipeline, and 20,000 km were the length of the oil product pipeline.

Gas Transmission of Russia

The gas pipeline is an engineering design of pipeline transport, which is used to transport methane and natural gas. The gas supply is carried out by means of excess pressure.

Today it is difficult to believe that the Russian Federation (currently the largest exporter of "blue fuel") initially depended on raw materials purchased abroad. In 1835 the first "blue fuel" production plant was opened in St. Petersburg with a distribution system from the field to the consumer. This plant produced gas from foreign coal. After 30 years, the same plant was built in Moscow.

Because of the high cost of building gas pipes and imported raw materials, Russia's first gas pipelines were of small size. Pipelines produced large diameters (1220 and 1420 mm) and with a long length. With the development of technologies of the natural gas field and its extraction, the size of the "blue rivers" in Russia began to increase rapidly.

The largest gas pipelines in Russia

Gazprom is the largest operator of the gas artery in Russia. The main activities of the corporation are:

  • Geological prospecting, extraction, transportation, storage, processing;
  • Production and sale of heat and electricity.

At the moment there are such operating gas pipelines:

  1. The Blue Stream.
  2. "Progress".
  3. The Union.
  4. "Nord Stream".
  5. "Yamal-Europe".
  6. "Urengoy-Pomary-Uzhhorod".
  7. Sakhalin-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok.

Since many investors are interested in the development of the oil and oil refining industry, engineers are actively developing and building all the new largest gas pipelines in Russia.

Oil pipelines of the Russian Federation

The oil pipeline is an engineering design of pipeline transport, which is used to transport oil from the point of production to the consumer. There are two types of pipelines: main and field pipelines.

The largest oil pipeline mains:

  1. "Friendship" - one of the major routes of the Russian Empire. Today's output is 66.5 million tons per year. The main line passes from Samara through Bryansk. In the city of Mozyr, "Friendship" is divided into two sections:
  • Southern highway - passes through Ukraine, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia, Czech Republic;
  • The northern highway - through Germany, Latvia, Poland, Belarus and Lithuania.
  1. The Baltic pipeline system is a system of oil pipelines that connects the place of oil production with the seaport. The capacity of such a highway is 74 million tons of oil per year.
  2. The Baltic Pipeline System-2 is the system that connects the Druzhba pipeline with Russian ports in the Baltic. The capacity is 30 million tons per year.
  3. The Eastern oil pipeline connects the place of extraction of Eastern and Western Siberia with the markets of the USA and Asia. The capacity of such an oil pipeline reaches 58 million tons per year.
  4. The Caspian Pipeline Consortium is an important international project involving the largest oil companies, established for the construction and operation of 1.5 thousand km of pipes. The working capacity is 28.2 million tons per year.

Gas pipelines from Russia to Europe

Russia can deliver gas to Europe in three ways: through the Ukrainian gas transmission system, as well as through the Nord Stream and Yamal-Europe gas pipelines. In the event that Ukraine finally ceases cooperation in the Russian Federation, the supply of "blue fuel" to Europe will be carried out exclusively by the Russian gas pipelines.

The scheme for supplying methane to Europe involves, for example, such options:

  1. "Nord Stream" is a gas pipeline that connects Russia and Germany along the bottom of the Baltic Sea. The pipeline bypasses the transit states: Byelorussia, Poland and the Baltic countries. "Nord Stream" was put into operation relatively recently - in 2011.
  2. "Yamal-Europe" - the length of the gas pipeline is more than two thousand kilometers, the pipes pass through the territory of Russia, Belarus, Germany and Poland.
  3. "Blue Stream" - the gas pipeline connects the Russian Federation and Turkey along the bottom of the Black Sea. Its length is 1213 km. The design capacity is 16 billion cubic meters per year.
  4. "South Stream" - the pipeline is divided into sea and land areas. The maritime section runs along the bottom of the Black Sea and connects the Russian Federation, Turkey and Bulgaria. The length of the site is 930 km. The land site passes through the territory of Serbia, Bulgaria, Hungary, Italy, Slovenia.

Gazprom said that in 2017 the gas price for Europe will be increased by 8-14%. Russian analysts say that the volume of supplies this year will be more than in 2016. The revenue of the Russian gas monopoly in 2017 could grow by 34.2 billion dollars.

Russia's gas pipelines: import schemes

The countries of the near abroad, to which Russia delivers gas, include:

  1. Ukraine (sales of 14.5 billion cubic meters).
  2. Belarus (19.6).
  3. Kazakhstan (5.1).
  4. Moldova (2.8).
  5. Lithuania (2,5).
  6. Armenia (1.8).
  7. Latvia (1).
  8. Estonia (0.4).
  9. Georgia (0.3).
  10. South Ossetia (0.02).

Among the far abroad countries, Russian gas is used:

  1. Germany (the volume of supplies is 40.3 billion cubic meters).
  2. Turkey (27.3).
  3. Italy (21.7).
  4. Poland (9.1).
  5. Great Britain (15.5).
  6. Czech Republic (0.8) and others.

Supply of gas to Ukraine

In December 2013, Gazprom and Naftogaz signed an addition to the contract. The document specified a new "discount" price, one-third less than the one specified in the contract. The treaty entered into force on January 1, 2014, and must be renewed every three months. Due to debts for gas, Gazprom canceled the discount in April 2014, and from April 1 the price rose to $ 500 per thousand cubic meters (the discount price was $ 268.5 per thousand cubic meters).

The planned gas pipelines in Russia

The map of the Russian gas pipelines at the development stage includes five sections. The South Stream project between Anapa and Bulgaria has not been implemented, Altai is being built - this is a gas pipeline between Siberia and Western China. The Caspian gas pipeline, which will supply natural gas from the Caspian Sea, should in future run through the territory of the Russian Federation, Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan. For deliveries from Yakutia to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region one more route is being built - Yakutia-Khabarovsk-Vladivostok.

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