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Relief and mineral resources of the Crimea. What minerals are mined in the Crimea?

The southern shores and inviting mountain peaks are the characteristic features of many Crimean regions. Created by nature, they have a rather complex terrain and diverse landscape. Separately, it should be noted and useful minerals - the Crimea is full of mineral wealth, so it is simply impossible to not consider in more detail the peninsula in this aspect.

Mountain massifs in the Crimea and features of the relief

The entire territory of the Crimea can be divided into 3 ridges, with about 9% will be allocated to the mountainous terrain. The first is the Main Range. Her possessions are located in the southern part of the peninsula and go along the seacoast. It takes its origin in the south-west, at the foot of Mount Kush-kaya (it is near Cape Aya), and reaches the mountain Kara-Dag, which is located in the northeast.

In the west, it has to move about 4 km from the sea. It is formed by arrays, which resemble boards (so-called yayly), which are inseparable lines. Such, for example, as Ai-Petrinskaya yaila, Yalta yaila, Nikitskaya yaila, Babugan-yaila. It is important to note that such features of the geological structure in many ways predetermine the relief and minerals of the Crimea.

On the Bagugan-Yaila massif there is the highest point of the Crimean ridge. It is called Roman-Kosh and has a height of more than 1,500 meters above sea level.

Attractive relief places in Crimea

In the south-west of the peninsula above the old resort town of Alupka one can not help noticing one of the natural Crimean mountain peaks - Ai-Petri. More than 1200 meters in height - not the main advantage of the mountain. Particular attention to itself attracts the original peak, which has a unique education resembling a real giant trident. Ai-Petri is also considered to be a full-fledged mistress of the Southern Shore in the western part of the seaside lands. Here, by the way, natural reserves are concentrated (what minerals are mined in the Crimea, then it becomes known).

Most of the territory of these massifs is characterized by slopes that are steep in nature. A spectacular and memorable sight can be observed in this place: hanging cliffs, the edges of which are too far from the sea. Among such places, the most famous and popular for tourists are the mountain range Ayu-Dag (Bear Mountain) in Gurzuf, an amazing rock with a romantic name Diva in Simeiz, Cape Fiolent on the outskirts of Sevastopol and others. Well, who does not know Cape Ai-Todor? Of the millions of postcards and traditional souvenirs about him, even a child is known, because there, on one of the rocks, leaving on a steep precipice in the sea, stands the legendary "Swallow's Nest".

From here you can also enjoy the picturesque horizon, affecting Karabi-yaila. Divided by deep depressions, these ridges have an impressive distance from the sea at a rate of six to eight kilometers. In sunny clear weather from the south-eastern part of Simferopol, you can easily see the Chatyr-Dag (Shater-Mountain) array, which stands out by its Majesty.

Earthquakes on the peninsula

Due to the research of the ground, it was found out that the lowering of the continental ledge on the bottom of the Black Sea continues to this day. Earthquakes are one of the components of the development of the Crimea at the modern level. Often they are accompanied by landslides, which affects the continental ledge of the southern part of the coast.

Strong earthquakes are a rare phenomenon in the Crimea. One such is the earthquake of 1927. As a result of his actions, Monk, who was near Simeiz, collapsed, and Cape Ai-Todor, which is located near the Swallow's Nest, also suffered partial destruction. There is information about the cracks that covered the earth's crust in Balaklava.

Resources of the Crimean territory

Not far from Sudak the mountains again come close to the sea surface, which significantly affects what minerals are mined in the Crimea. The main components of these mountain ranges are sedimentary rocks, such as limestone, clay, sandstone and many others. As the salt level changed very often, the sea fauna also changed. This has been widely reflected in the remnants of the soil and affected the minerals. The Crimea has ample opportunities for independent domestic supply of natural raw materials precisely due to the numerous resources that will be discussed later.

Not all indigenous people know what kind of minerals are in the Crimea. And really, there is more to be proud of. Among the many natural resources can be identified the main minerals of Crimea in short:

  • Fossils of sedimentary origin;
  • Fossils of volcanic origin;
  • Fossils of marine origin.

For industrial purposes inside the peninsula and beyond, the needs of the population were almost completely covered by their own reserves.

Iron ore reserves

The ore minerals of Crimea not so long ago occupied the leading place in the USSR in terms of production volumes. One of the first places in the Union was occupied by the Kerch iron ore deposit. As for the world scale, it was the largest in terms of industrial reserves.

This iron ore deposit has about 38% iron. As for phosphorus and arsenic, their percentage of content is significantly higher than the number in other deposits. Also here for a long time already geologists have noticed small reserves of vanadium. The cost of the ores mined in the Kerch iron ore deposit is not at a high price. This fact is explained by the fact that the costs of their extraction are minimal, since ore minerals are practically on the surface. Crimea, although famous for its iron wealth, is, as we know, far from everything that can be found in the earth's interior.

Non-saline salt deposits

The variety of salt lakes (including Sivash) is characterized by a high content of table salt, glauber, and magnesium chloride, potassium salts and therapeutic mud. Nonmetallic minerals of the Crimea are mostly concentrated in the Sivash lake. Previously scientists measured salt reserves in millions of tons. This is due to the fact that sea water enters there permanently and continuously, so they can be considered inexhaustible. At the same time, the Sivash lake and other salt water bodies do not have an impressive depth. The exception is Lake Donuzlav, which is located on the Tarkhankut Peninsula.

Mining of the Crimea is an important industry for the economy of the region and the state as a whole. Potassium and magnesium salts are widely used in agriculture. Potassium salts have a special demand due to the fact that several decades ago they successfully found their application as a fertilizer. Therefore, at present, about 94% of the total number of extracted resources from the salt deposit of minerals Crimea sends to the needs of agriculture throughout the country.

Healing Crimean lakes

The Saki, Chokrak and the group of Prisivash lakes, as well as many other reservoirs, occupy far from the last place in the economic activities of the peninsula. For example, such lakes as Sakskoye and Moynakskoye are considered health resort areas, where many come for mud therapeutic courses. If we take as a basis all the chemicals that make up most of the salt lakes in the Crimea, then we can establish a permanent production of magnesium oxide. The main part of this production process is limestone.

Production of magnesium oxide is due to the need to obtain such an indispensable material in the farm, like gypsum. In addition, gypsum on saline soils increases yield to 70%.

Natural reserves for the construction industry

Materials intended for construction, did not bypass the peninsula side. The leading place is rightly occupied by bryozoic limestone, also known as Inkerman stone. In appearance this stone contains pores, differs cream color. Its weight is insignificant, but in strength it is not inferior to a simple brick. In working with it, there are no problems, it is easy to process. Inkermansky stone has proved itself well in the field of construction. Its main direction is the facing sphere.

But, in addition to mshankovy, Crimea is also rich in limestone such as Nummulite, shell rock, marble, and many others. Limestone, regardless of its type, found its wide application in the construction sector. Many other minerals are used as often. Crimea with the help of natural reserves fully meets the needs of the local population in the building material.

Tras and diorite

On the South coast, such a natural breed as diorite, which was obtained as a result of a volcanic eruption, is very popular. The largest of its locations can be called the territory between Alushta and Gurzuf. Also a considerable amount of diorite was discovered near Lozovy and Ukrainka, which is located south of Simferopol. Crimean diorite can be fully compared with granite. Significant differences in their external similarity, as well as building qualities, are not easy to identify. Diorite is a stone of gray color with a slight green tinge. It is very strong. Most often it is used in facing works, as well as for decoration of stairs and streets.

Tras, like diorite, was formed as a result of the volcanic eruption. The breed from the ashes, as it is often called, is widely used in the farm. The largest of its deposits is Karadag. It is located 20 kilometers from Feodosia, in the village of Planersky. This volcanic rock can boast of its greatest reserves.

Of particular value are such materials for construction, as quartz sand and gravel, mined in the mountains. Their main mining areas can be found near Sevastopol and Simferopol, as well as on the Black Sea coast, near the Saki region.

Resources of combustible raw materials

Fuel minerals of Crimea represent a separate group of valuable resources. For example, the Kerch Peninsula is characterized by an abundance of oil. Thanks to oil fields, there is a continuous eruption of natural gases that can be burned. Also this peninsula is rich in sulfuric formations.

Mountain Crimea boasts of coal. But its deposits are insignificant, therefore it is used only for local application. But in the foothill areas you can find pretty decent deposits of bleaching clay.

Mineral waters in the Crimea

Recent years have been carried out in careful studies of the entire peninsula. Relying on them, we can conclude that the Crimea is the owner of a variety of mineral springs. For example, near Feodosia there is a spring with salt-alkaline water.

In some areas of the Crimea were found sources that produce mineral water, in its composition, almost no different from the legendary "Essentuki". For example, sources of warm nitrogen-alkaline water were found near the Salgir River and near Chatyr-Dag. Also near Feodosia, hydrogen sulphide water was found, and in Bakhchisarai carbon dioxide was found.


Useful natural resources of the Crimea are rich and diverse, and their places of congestion can be found in various parts of the whole peninsula. All natural resources can be combined into several groups according to their economic affiliation and geographic features:

  1. Steppe Crimea is rich in limestone for construction and large reserves of salt.
  2. In the mountainous terrain and on the South Coast there are sources of mineral waters and a lot of raw materials for construction materials.
  3. The Kerch Peninsula is an iron ore district, and also has promising fuel and energy reserves.

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