One of the main hormones is progesterone, the norm of which depends on the day of the cycle. Its main function is to prepare the body for pregnancy and its preservation. If the hormone is not enough, then this puts the possibility of motherhood in question. However, its modern analogs help to solve the problem.
Progesterone in a small amount is produced in the adrenal glands. However, the main source of the woman after ovulation is the yellow body. It functions for about 2 weeks, and then it regresses, which leads to menstrual bleeding.
At the onset of pregnancy the yellow body works with redoubled force. After 16 weeks, the function of producing progesterone takes on the formed placenta.
If it is not enough during pregnancy, then it can threaten miscarriage. Since this hormone does not allow the uterus to contract, it provides growth, it does not allow to reject the fetal egg. The norm of progesterone during gestation is significantly higher than before pregnancy.
However, if this hormone is not enough, then conception may not even occur. Since it is he in the luteal phase that prepares the endometrium for implantation of the embryo. After ovulation, its concentration constantly increases and reaches a maximum one week after it.
Usually it is during this period that they are given an analysis for it. This time usually occurs on the 21st day of the cycle at its 28 day duration. The day before the study you need to give up physical exertion, spend it in the morning on an empty stomach.
By results it is possible to judge whether ovulation has taken place and whether the yellow body functions normally. Suspected of its insufficiency is possible with the duration of the luteal phase less than 10 days.
Progesterone, the norm of which depends on the sex, is produced in men in the testes and adrenal glands. However, they have this hormone much less than women. In men and children, indications for the analysis of it are defects in steroid biosynthesis.
Rates of progesterone (nmol / l):
- Menopause - up to 0,65;
- The follicular phase is 0.33-2.24;
- Ovulation - 0,5-9,43;
- Luteal phase - 7-56,7;
- 1 trimester - 9-468.5;
- 2 trimester - 71.6-303.2;
- 3 terms - 88.8 - 771.6;
- Men - 0.33-0.65.
It is necessary to take into account that the level of the hormone is influenced by the intake of some drugs, so it should be warned by the doctor. In addition, in different laboratories the norms may differ, they are indicated as a result. This is due to the use of different test systems. Other units of measurement can also be used.
So, the progesterone norm (ng / ml):
- Children - up to 0.04;
- Men - 0,14-1,27;
- The follicular phase is 0.09-1.27;
- Ovulation - 0.09-1.27;
- Luteal phase - 2.51-25.01;
- Menopause - 0.09-1.61;
- 1 trimester is 25.01-75.01.
At a pathological amount of a hormone there can be following displays:
- Violation of the cycle;
- Vaginal bleeding;
- Mood swings;
- Tenderness of the chest.
Effects of progesterone in the body:
- Development of tissues;
- Increased blood pressure;
- Increased sebum production;
- Stimulation of uterine growth;
- Stop the menstrual cycle during pregnancy;
- Provision of embryo implantation;
- Relaxing effect on the musculature of the uterus.
This hormone can be lowered in the following cases:
- Delay in fetal development;
- Chronic inflammation in the genital tract;
- Premature pregnancy ;
- Uterine bleeding;
- Insufficiency of the placenta and yellow body.
Progesterone can increase in the following situations:
- Absence of menstruation for more than six months;
- Yellow body cyst ;
- Pathologies of placenta development;
- Uterine bleeding;
- Kidney failure;
- Development of abnormal amounts of hormones by the adrenal glands.
So, progesterone, the norm of which depends on sex, phase of the cycle and the period of pregnancy, is responsible for the possibility of conception and bearing of the child. If it is not enough, the appearance of a long-awaited baby may not occur. However, modern diagnostics and drugs solve this problem.