A good harvest can be obtained in autumn only if the correct selection of tubers has been carried out and the preparation of potatoes for planting in the spring has been made. When to extract seed tubers from the cellar, depends on the chosen method of their preparation and the time of planting. Planting material must be carefully processed. These are the general rules for the cultivation of any plant. Time for preparatory work with tubers each gardener chooses himself. Specialists believe that the sorting and processing of potatoes should be done in spring or autumn (at the time of harvesting). Only healthy plants are suitable for use. The bush should be without pests, and its root system - contain a lot of tubers.
Preparation of potato seeds for planting: selection of tubers by spring type
First, you need to select the planting material. The recommended mass of potatoes allowed for use varies from 30 to 100 grams. Specialists immediately exclude tubers that look unhealthy or have an irregular shape. If the selection is carried out independently, it is worth paying attention to the following characteristics of the material that make it unfit for planting:
- the ground part of the plant was affected by the nematode;
- an unpleasant and unnatural smell emanates from the tuber;
- The tub was settled by a scab.
It should be noted that potatoes, damaged by sharp objects, but not affected by diseases, are quite suitable for planting. Cuts are usually treated with a fungicide solution. As a result, quality material for planting should be at least 85%.
Separation of tubers
After the primary selection of the planting material is carried out, it is necessary to sort it into several groups. To begin with, identify and fold large tubers separately (weighing more than 80 grams). The second group is formed from medium-sized potatoes (weighing from 50 to 80 grams). As a result, only a small planting material, consisting of small potatoes of 30-50 grams, should remain.
Need to sort
For disembarkation, the average group of sorted tubers is usually used. For harvesting in the next year you can use a small part of small and large potatoes. Experienced gardeners do not recommend mixing pre-sorted tubers. The reason is that bushes will grow unevenly, and stronger and stronger plants will suppress neighboring ones.
Separation of tubers must be made in order to avoid difficulties with subsequent care of planting. Using this method eliminates uneven shoots. Plants will have a similar size and will develop the same way.
After the planting material has been divided into three large groups, preparation of the potato seeds for planting can begin. To plant fit only tubers with sprouts, so you need to spend their gardening. Potatoes are placed in a cool room with a stable heating mode. The recommended air temperature should not be below 10 degrees Celsius. But at the same time, you need to ensure that the thermometer does not show values above 12 degrees. The room for landscaping should be well ventilated or ventilated.
The main condition for successful landscaping is the availability of sufficient light. Only by observing this rule, you can achieve the necessary color for tuber planting. In the light, the potatoes turn green. To complete the process must pass at least 30 days. Changed tubers are no longer suitable for eating, but are best suited for planting. Planting material requires periodic monitoring. It is necessary to turn the tubers regularly, so that the potatoes are of uniform green color.
Choosing a tank for landscaping
As containers for storage can be used containers of transparent plastic. Many gardeners have adapted to plant tubers in boxes from under cakes or in ordinary polyethylene bags. According to observations of specialists, this greatly reduces the time for preparing the planting material. It is recommended to make a few small holes in polyethylene bags, fill the free volume with tubers by two thirds and tie the ends of the bag. Then you need to intercept the package in the middle and hang it in a cool room. It is also important to ensure that sufficient light is available.
The preparation of potato seeds for planting through gardening is sometimes called vernalization in the light. But there are several other methods that are used depending on the available conditions and personal preferences of the horticulturist.
Stimulating the timing of germination
The method is used in cases where the gardener is very late with the processing time of the planting material. In such cases, preparing potatoes for planting in spring and germination can be slightly accelerated. To do this, you must first prepare a special solution consisting of a mixture of ash, trace elements and copper sulfate (or other stimulant for plant growth). It is necessary to observe the proportions when mixing the ingredients. A liter of water requires a quarter of a teaspoon of copper sulfate, and microelements are added very little - at the tip of the knife. The amount of ashes in the composition of each horticulturist is determined independently.
The prepared solution is sprayed with potatoes every other day. It is allowed to reduce the number of procedures and to irrigate the planting material once every 3 days. Some gardeners completely immerse the tubers in the compound. This is a good preventive maintenance of illnesses, in particular a fungus. It is important not to overdo it, experts do not recommend keeping the potato in solution for more than two minutes.
Drying of tubers by express method
Preparation of potatoes for planting in spring in this way is carried out in those cases when there are no necessary conditions for germination of planting material, and the time limits are also limited. It is recommended to spray tubers at an air temperature of 14 to 16 degrees. The potatoes are laid in a thin layer on a flat horizontal surface and left for 10 days. The room must be dry.
Convenient is that when such preparation of potato tubers for planting is used, it is not necessary to provide access to the room. The method is very simple to use, and the resulting effect is quite high. It can be used in the anomalously early beginning of spring, since the planting material will be ready by mid-April.
When potato tubers are prepared for planting using a moist method, potatoes are not germinated in the light, but in a wet filler. As a basis for the substrate, water-soaked sawdust or sand is usually used (gardeners in the northern latitudes take for this conventional peat). The rate of germination is significantly increased: 15 days are sufficient to prepare the planting material. Tubers can be pledged not earlier than April.
According to some gardeners, using this method of germinating the tubers retain more nutrients and are able to produce more healthy shoots. The disadvantages include the low resistance of such potatoes to diseases and pests.
Heating of planting material
The preparation of potato seeds before planting by heating the tubers is the quickest way to get the shoots. It is used in cases where the potatoes have not germinated for unknown reasons, and there is no time for using other methods. The planting material is kept in a room with a high air temperature. Values can reach 35-40 degrees of heat. With this method, sprouts appear and the kidneys are awakened intensely. The tubers are ready for planting after 4 days.
Use of solutions
Germination of tubers can be accelerated by spraying the planting material with compounds that stimulate their growth. Procedures are recommended to be conducted no more often than once in 5-6 days. It is necessary to use different solutions, some of them are listed in the following list:
1) Nitrofosca . Recommended concentration: one teaspoon per three liters of liquid.
2) Fertilizer "Effeton". One spoonful of the formula is bred in three liters of water.
3) Urea . For a three-liter jar of water, one small spoon is enough.
When using solutions, it is important not to exceed the concentration of the substance in the water and observe the schedule for processing the seed material.
Division of tubers into shares
To save planting material, as well as when introducing a new variety, experts recommend cutting the tubers into lobes. Such preparation of potato seeds for planting (cutting) requires compliance with several general rules:
- Cut only sprouted tubers. The material for planting is maintained for about three days (until a protective peel is formed).
- The weight of each lobule should be at least 25 grams.
- On the surface of the skin of the lobe, there should be more than two sprouts.
- Store the cut tubers in a heated room at an air temperature of 18 to 25 degrees and humidity from 94% to 96%.
- The potato must be exposed to a sufficient amount of light.
- Cutting is done with stainless steel knives. After each cut, the blade is disinfected in a 0.1% solution of manganese or a 0.5% solution of salicylic acid.
Prevention of diseases
When the preparation of potatoes for planting under the film and without it is done, different solutions are used to protect the planting material during germination. The most popular among gardeners has been the treatment of potatoes with diluted potassium permanganate or copper sulfate. This method prevents the infection of tubers by late blight. For copper vitriol, the allowable concentration is not more than one teaspoon per three liters of liquid. Manganese is bred in water until a saturated purple solution is obtained. The potatoes are lowered for a couple of minutes into the composition, and then laid out and allowed to dry.
Divorced copper vitriol or manganese is recommended to use for spraying tubers and young shrubs. This significantly increases the plant's resistance to the causative agents of major diseases and effectively repels pests.
Preparing potatoes for planting in spring: when to get on germination
To warm up and germinate the tubers are removed from the cellar approximately 30-35 days before planting.
Gardeners in practice were convinced that the preparation of potato seeds for planting and inexpensive measures for germinating tubers could have a significant impact on yields. These methods do not require much labor and time, but are of the same importance as fertilizer, variety selection or the use of protective agents against pests and plant diseases.
Preparing the land for planting potatoes is very important. Cooking is better in autumn. The preparation of the soil for planting potatoes is carried out as follows: the land is cleared of weeds, is introduced on 1 sq. Km. M bucket of compost or reparted manure, 15 g of potassium salt, 30 g of superphosphate. After that, it is dug into the bayonet, and the lumps are not broken. This will reduce the number of pests that have successfully overwintered in the earth.