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Original Udmurt national costume

Experts call Udmurt national costumes the brightest, lively and colorful among the peoples of Russia and the former CIS countries. A typical combination of colors is white, black and red. In the national costume of the Udmurts, from the beginning of the 19th century, three complexes began to stand out:

  • The northern costume was tricolor;
  • Southern - multicolored;
  • The Besmyansky.

Headgear of the northern complex

Udmurt women's costume has several options for headgear:

  • a cap;
  • cover;
  • towel;
  • bandage.

A common girl's headpiece - takya - a canvas hat, which was decorated with coins and a bum. Children wore cotres takya, it has a round shape, older girls - more oblong cousiels takya. In addition to Takia, there were also popular canvasses on the head, which were necessarily decorated with ribbons, gimmick, embroidery or sequins. The handkerchiefs were made of cotton or a white host. For the holidays the girls wore painted cashmere or silk scarves. Married women wore colorfully embroidered head towels: yyr kotyr, vesyak kyshet. Men's hats did not differ in such a variety: in the summer they wore hula hats, in the winter - hats made of sheepskin.

Southern headdresses

  • Hats: Pellet.
  • Headgear bandages: yyrkurttat, tyyyak and yokotyug.
  • Towel: jersey or turban.
  • Aishon.
  • Shawls.

Girls-udmurtki wore headdresses with headscarves. Ukotyuk is a complex headdress. On the kumach or canvas, strips of a dowel with dense fringe, wooden pendants, pendent threads, sparkles were sewn. The headband of adult women (yırkerttat) stood out with sewn coins and beads. Aishon is the Udmurt analog of the Russian kokoshnik. The base was made of birch bark, covered with a canvas and, of course, in front decorated with beads, beads and coins. Above the aishon they put on a syllable - a white embroidered canvas. Wedding sylyk had an important distinctive feature - massive black embroidery and brushes on the sides of black and red threads. From the day of the wedding and until the birth of the first-born, women wore a black-colored sack, then - red to the old age.

Women's Udmurt national costume

The women's North Udmurt outfit is an ancient and simple type of clothing. The basis was a dress-shirt: straight dense material, rectangular sleeves, a triangular or oval cutout without a collar. The hem and sleeves of the dress were traditionally decorated with embroidery. Cross embroidery rosette called koltymarch, and a relief longitudinal with a diamond-shaped pattern - gorden. Udmurt women's suit of northerners necessarily includes a short-sleeved kaftan short-hair. His cut is similar to a shirt, only the collar was square turned and the sleeves short. Shortarder was richly decorated with beads, coins, cowrias, strips of kumach and embroidery on the hem and collar. There were many ways to finish the caftan:

  • Zok cumak ponem - a lot of cum;
  • Pisma kumach ponem - a little bit of a bum;
  • Kotyr kumach ponem - a strip of kumach around the whole caftan;
  • Catulo - wide strip of cumacha up to the waist line;
  • Kotrah tachkyo - finishing with embroidery on the floors, hem and shoulders;
  • Green is embroidered on the hem;
  • Gorden shyrem - red;
  • Syoden shyrem - black.

The national costume of Udmurts can not be imagined without an apron (ayshet, azkishet or ashchet), laced with lace, braid, patterns. Ties were made in the form of brushes made from multi-colored pieces of fabric. On holidays, clothes were supplemented with a patterned belt, on which a handkerchief was hung on the side. Everybody was strapped around with an apron on.

Udmurt national costume as a shoe provides for bast shoes according to the Russian pattern. On holidays they wore Udmurt folk bats, which have a trapezoidal sock shape. Wearing thick white white canvas stockings under the umbrellas, the upper fabric was beautifully embroidered with patterns or a bum. Patterned thin stockings stretched over stockings.

National suit of men of Udmurts

Male Udmurt national costume includes:

  • Shirt;
  • Belt or belt;
  • pants.

Shirt - white canvas with a cut on the right side of the chest and sleeves, which are decorated with red thin transverse strips. Her men were always worn out and strapped around with a belt or a braided belt. Pants are usually dense and dark in color, more often - blue. Men's shoes, as a rule, did not decorate. In the summer they wore bast shoes, in the winter - felt boots.

Today, the Udmurt folk costume is rarely used for its intended purpose. They are kept in museums or houses in chests as family riches, put on performances by ethnic folklore ensembles. In the villages, the custom of wearing national clothes for a wedding and big holidays has been preserved.

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