Memory in psychology is a form of mental reflection, which fixes, preserves and reproduces later past experience, which makes it possible to reuse it in a new activity. Memory connects the present person with the past and the future. It is an important cognitive function that contributes to the development of man. The basis of mental activity is also memory.
There are different types of memory in psychology. They are classified according to the following criteria.
According to the content of mental activity, the motor (motor), emotional, verbal-logical, imaginative memory is distinguished. Image memory - the perception, preservation and use of images of phenomena and objects of reality. Motor memory in psychology is the recording and reproduction of movements (walking, using tools, etc.). Emotional - memory of familiar emotional states and feelings. It is the main condition for moral development. Verbal-logical memory is reduced to remembering and later reproduction of thoughts (peculiar only to man).
By the degree of volitional regulation allocate arbitrary memory (the person remembers at his own discretion and desire) and involuntary (memorization occurs without strong-willed efforts).
By the duration of fastening and further preservation, short-term memory in psychology is distinguished (it suffices the captured information for a few seconds after a short perception) and long-term (characterized by the duration and relative strength of the preservation of the material).
By the role and place of activity there is a constant and operational memory (it keeps certain intermediate results and goals).
All listed types of memory exist separately from each other.
Memory in psychology is characterized by the following processes that take place in it: memorization, preservation, forgetting, recognition, reproduction.
The memory features of different people depend on the types of their nervous system, the nature of professional work and other factors. A person can have a certain type of memory: visual-shaped, verbal-logical or intermediate (harmonious).
There are memory theories in psychology. The theory of memory is a form of mental reflection. In the XIX century, Ebbinghaus investigated the laws of pure memory. In the twentieth century in Gestalt psychology, the basis for memory was taken by the Gestalts - integral organized structures. Behaviorism emphasized the role of reinforcements in memorization. Psychoanalysis believed that forgetting is associated with the motivational sphere of the psyche. Today there are theories that deal with the process and mechanisms of memory: biochemical theory, the theory of neural models, chemical theory.
The quality of memory (volume, speed of memorization, accuracy of reproduction, duration of storage, ability to quickly extract data, ease of playback) determine its productivity. The productivity of memory can be influenced by objective causes and subjective.
The nature of memorized information, its structuredness, logicality and connectivity of the material, proportionality, distribution, visibility, as well as general settings and conditions in which memorization should take place, should be considered as objective.
The subjective reasons are the individual type of memorization, the wealth of past experience, the existence of an installation for memorizing and preserving information, personal significance, emotional attitude, memory size, gender and age characteristics, physical condition, etc.
The study of memory in psychology is conducted using experimental methods. Often they give conflicting information. However, scientists believe that memory is capable of capturing everything that a person experiences. Limitations on it imposes only human consciousness.