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Maximum allowable emission and their norms

To regulate the quality of the entire environment, only one way is possible - the introduction of MPE (maximum permissible emission) for pollution sources and strict control over the implementation of these norms. According to the scientific and technical standard of MPE, conditions are established under which the content in the surface air layer of pollutants from a combination of sources should not exceed the quality standards that are necessary for the population, as well as the flora and fauna of the area.

Installation of MPE and control

Specifically, for each source that can pollute the atmosphere, the maximum permissible emission is established. The condition is such that the release of pollutant taking into account dispersion and interactions with other components does not create concentrations that affect air quality and exceed the established norm. This applies to individual enterprises, and the whole set of sources that pollute the air of the settlement. In addition, all prospects for the development of enterprises are necessarily taken into account.

The regulatory framework of Russia is ramified to provide state control over all pollution, to assess the quality of atmospheric air and to control the processes of its purification by establishing the norms of MPE. What are the maximum permissible emissions? We are talking about this in the article.


The normative document "Maximum permissible concentration (MPC) in the atmosphere of harmful substances for populated areas" works in our country today, which lists 628 harmful substances, maximum, single and average daily MAC values, hazard class of each substance, limit of the hazard index. There is also a prohibitive section for the release of substances "B" because of their extreme biological activity. Such forbidden substances are thirty-eight.

At elevated temperature, the maximum permissible emission of harmful substances into the atmosphere from a single source, provided by the concentration in the surface air, but which does not exceed the MPC, is calculated by special formulas. Regulates the quality of the environment and is controlled by the MPE, which is a scientifically proven technology. The maximum permissible emissions (MPE) of harmful substances into the atmosphere from industrial sources are determined on the basis of establishing and studying their various parameters, as well as the properties of harmful substances that are released into the atmosphere and the atmospheric conditions of the given moment.

Calculation of permissible concentrations

In order to carry out preventive sanitary supervision and timely to make reasonable claims to all recreational activities, in order to accurately determine the maximum permissible emissions (MPE) pertaining to industrial enterprises, special data are used to calculate the concentrations of foreign substances to the atmosphere.

A normative value has been established to ensure protection of the air environment from environmentally harmful substances released into the atmosphere - this is the maximum permissible emission: the volume of the pollutant per unit of time (each separate source of pollution). Exceeding this normative value is the excess of MPC in the environment that surrounds the source of pollution, which leads to the most unfavorable consequences for the surrounding area and for the health of the population living there.


In the volume "Protection of the atmosphere", the results of the work performed by the head departmental organizations are made, proposals are also made there on what should be the maximum allowable emission of pollutants into the atmosphere (MPE), as well as for the ENV-temporarily agreed release - for the enterprise. The "Temporal Valuation Methodology" contains the structure of this volume.

All industrialized countries have environmental legislation that aims to limit pollution of the atmosphere and the environment. In Russia, the Law "On the Protection of Atmospheric Air" was adopted, where the normative indicators of MPE, MPC and ENV (temporarily agreed) of harmful substances are presented. The development of action plans protecting the air basin is based on measurement results.

Then the latter are reflected in the statistical reporting (form No. 2-tp-air), used in the calculation of standards, where the maximum permissible emission of harmful substances is displayed. This is an integral part of the operation of production and guarantees the objectivity of fiscal sanctions - payments for emissions. In addition, sufficient and rational investment costs are needed to comply with environmental requirements in the future, taking into account the social and financial goals of production.

Effective measures to protect the atmosphere

For each operating enterprise, a draft of maximum permissible emissions of pollutants into the atmosphere is being developed. This stipulates the need for measures that guarantee the utilization of oil waste, conducting environmental certification of enterprises, as well as comprehensive geoecological studies of the oil production area and all zones of impact of oil production enterprises.

When new ones are being designed and reconstructed, for each of them a project of maximum permissible emissions of harmful substances into the atmosphere is being developed. The concept of MPC in these norms is expressed in average annual permissible concentrations (KFOR), which allow to substantiate the volumes of maximum permissible emissions of radioactive isotopes, for example, into the external environment.

MPC in soils

The maximum permissible emissions of pollutants in soils are very difficult to establish. The environment of the soil cover is less mobile than the water surface and atmosphere, so the accumulation of chemical compounds entering the soil takes a long time.

For this reason, the main factor that determines the ELV for an enterprise or group of enterprises relates to the work time required to accumulate emissions to the MPC level. Nevertheless, the soil is constantly in an active microbiological process, there are physical and chemical processes that transform foreign substances entering the soil, and the depth and direction are not uniquely determined.

Different approach

As for the draft maximum permissible emissions (MPE), it can only control the organized emissions of harmful substances, and it is compiled so as to correspond to the given area. The division of emissions into organized and unorganized emissions requires a different approach to accounting and control.

For example, the introduction of new gas heating systems and even the replacement of existing systems operating on hot water or steam are also environmentally unsafe. Combustion of natural gas produces nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide. Even for the combustion of gaseous fuels, there are standards for maximum permissible emissions.

And, for example, at chemical plants, it is often impossible to observe the concentration of harmful emissions. Then a reduction of emissions is introduced in stages, each of which must be temporarily agreed upon (ENE). The number of these emissions should correspond to the normative indicators adopted for enterprises with similar capacities.

The results of control appear in every quarterly and annual report. Who sets the maximum permissible emissions? There is such an organization - the State Committee for Hydrometeorology, which compiles all schedules for the norms of the content of harmful substances in the emissions of enterprises.

On guard of public health

Normal sanitary and hygienic conditions in industrial premises and throughout the territory of the enterprise, as well as in populated areas, allow the content of harmful substances, which does not exceed the standards for maximum permissible emissions. For unconditional compliance with the MPC, a project of maximum permissible emissions is made for each enterprise and each substance.

There are laws of the Russian Federation: "Protection of the natural environment", "Epidemiological and sanitary welfare of the population" and "Protection of atmospheric air", according to which the discharge and release of harmful compounds, waste disposal is carried out only on the basis of a permit issued by special authorized state bodies. The permit takes into account all the norms of MPE and MPD (emissions and discharges), as well as many other conditions for taking care of the environment and human health.

Terms of drafting

Any enterprise that has even the only source of harmful emissions must have a PDV standard. If there is at least one weakly smoking pipe in a small factory, this document is mandatory for the operation of the plant. The environmental legislation of the Russian Federation regulates the need to develop such a project.

The maximum allowable emission is reviewed once in 5 years, and the project is in effect strictly during this time. Special conditions may dictate an earlier revision of the MPE. For example:

  • The ecological situation on the territory has changed;
  • The number of emission sources has changed: new ones have appeared or existing ones have been removed;
  • The production program of the enterprise has changed and the technologies applied on it have changed.

If the established standards are not met, the enterprise will have to pay for everything that exceeds the maximum permissible emissions. The development of the MPE project, this complex and responsible task, is always performed by professionals.

Development of MPEs

The basic points are as follows:

  • All sources of harmful emissions in the facility are subject to inventory. Lists of all sources and pollutants emitted by them are compiled.
  • The cost and terms of the works are coordinated. An agreement is drawn up for the development and approval of MPE.
  • The draft MPE is approved in state instances.
  • The company obtains permission for maximum permissible emissions into the atmosphere.

The event is not only difficult, but also very responsible. In the event of non-fulfillment or incorrect execution of the development of the volume of MPE, the enterprise falls under strict administrative responsibility: it faces high fines and even suspension of work until ninety days.

The inventory of emission sources (the first fundamental moment) has the following objectives:

  • Identification and reliable accounting of all sources of environmental pollution in the area of the enterprise;
  • Location of sources, volumes and composition of emissions;
  • Accounting for the receipt of harmful (polluting) substances into the environment.

Content of the draft MPE

Recommendations on the design of the draft MPE standards for enterprises determine the structure of the project. The following sections must be included here.

  1. Annotation.
  2. Introduction.
  3. Information about this enterprise.
  4. Characteristics of this enterprise from the point of view of the source of the atmosphere.
  5. Work of calculations and definition of the basic norms of MPE.
  6. List of measures to control emissions, if the meteorological conditions are unfavorable.
  7. Establishment of control over the performance of all standards in the enterprise.

Required documentation for the development of the MPE project:

  • Brief information is provided on the production, structure and staff of the enterprise, describes the purpose and characteristics of all facilities (both production and commercial units, workshops, sections, brigades, departments, offices, structures, buildings, etc.).
  • Detailed requisites of the enterprise. The scheme-map of the enterprise, as well as the situational scheme-map of the location.
  • Certificate of state registration of a legal entity.
  • Evidence of ownership of land, premises, buildings, structures or a lease for all this.
  • A reference certificate for raw materials and materials for the year.
  • List of technological equipment.
  • Detailed description of the whole technological process.
  • Information about the presence of CCGT (dust and gas cleaning equipment), a copy of the passport for the combined cycle plant, its capacity and so on.
  • Scheme of ventilation and air conditioning system with precise data on pipe diameters and height, fan brands and their productivity, number of hours of operation per day and so on.
  • Information on vehicles on the balance sheet of the enterprise, indicating the number, mark, as well as the places of their parking or storage, the places of their maintenance and repair.
  • Qualification certificates of environmental education responsible for the environment of this enterprise.
  • Previous project of emissions of harmful substances (if the enterprise is not newly formed).

Calculation of MPE standards

For the calculation of MPE there are corresponding generally accepted formulas. In order to understand how the MPE standards are set, it is necessary to know the main factors that characterize the dispersion of emissions:

  • Climate and atmosphere;
  • Location of polluting emissions sources;
  • Landscape and its features;
  • Physical and chemical characteristics of emissions;
  • Diameter of pipe mouths;
  • Distance of pipe mouths from the ground.

Monitoring of standards

Monitoring compliance with this enterprise all the norms of MPE - one of the most important sections of the project. This section can be divided into two parts: controlling directly the sources of pollution according to the MPE standards and controlling the border with the nearby residential area.

High-quality specialists drafted with MPE standards with experience of working at enterprises of various profiles who will take into account all established regulations and will compile all sections of the project correctly.

Thus, the adverse impact of activities - economic or other - physical and legal persons on the territory adjacent to the enterprise, as well as atmosphere and water resources, including groundwater, is monitored. The maximum permissible emission standards here, of course, are not the same, and the project takes this into account.

Monitoring of compliance with and achievement of the standards for maximum permissible emissions developed for the project can be carried out by the enterprise itself, which has its own production control, but more often it is more reliable to instruct the Department of Rosprirodnadzor, which exercises state control.

Harmonization of the project

Coordinate the draft is to be in Rospotrebnadzor and many other instances. Stages of this path are as follows:

  • Mandatory receipt of an expert opinion on the draft MPE in the relevant state institutions;
  • Receipt of a sanitary and epidemiological certificate in Rospotrebnadzor;
  • Examination and approval in the Rosprirodnadzor project MPE.

Thus, the standards of maximum permissible emissions of harmful substances into soils, water and air will be met. Each enterprise is a stationary source of such pollution. The MPE project will work correctly only if all technical norms, as well as background pollution, are taken into account , ecological and hygienic standards will not be exceeded, critical loads will not be allowed on the whole ecological system of the given territory.

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