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Lighting lamps: types, characteristics, purpose

The life of modern man is unthinkable without the use of electricity. To date, most of the light sources are electrical. About 15% of the total amount of electricity produced is consumed by lighting devices. To reduce power consumption, increase light output and extend the life of light sources, it is necessary to use the most economical light sources, gradually abandoning older and unjustifiably energy-consuming analogs.

Lighting lamps

Consider the generally accepted classification. Based on the principles of the operation of electrical appliances in terms of lighting, the following types of lighting lamps are distinguished: incandescent lamps, including halogen incandescent lamps and discharge lamps, and LEDs, which have become increasingly popular over the past few years.

It is worth noting that the lamps differ in shape, size, quantity of energy consumed and heat transfer, service life, cost. So, let's consider electric lighting lamps in more detail and determine the advantages and disadvantages of each kind.

Types of lamps

Which lamp is the cheapest and easy to use? This is the familiar lamp of incandescent lighting - a veteran in the work of numerous household electrical appliances. The low price and ease of operation make them popular for more than a decade. They are not afraid of temperature changes, they instantly ignited and do not contain dangerous fumes of mercury. They produce lamps of different power from 25 to 150 watts. True, the number of working hours for such lamps is low, only 1000, and the power consumption is much higher than that of energy-saving analogs. Over time, due to the vapors released during the operation, the glass of the lamp becomes turbid and loses its brightness. Therefore they are unprofitable, and in due course they are refused. So, in many European countries their production and sale are stopped and prohibited by law.

Reflector lamps

The reflex incandescent lamps also found their application. They in many respects resemble a conventional incandescent lamp, the only difference is the silvered surface. This is used to create directional lighting at a certain point, for example, in a display case or billboard. Mark them R50, R63, and R80, where the number indicates the diameter. They are easy to use, equipped with a threaded base of standard sizes E14 or E27.

Fluorescent lamps

As is known, about 15% of all generated electricity is needed to operate lighting equipment. Agree, because it is very much. To reduce this indicator, it is necessary to switch to more economical light sources. According to the current legislation, since 2014, the power of illuminating lamps should not exceed 25 W. In place of the usual incandescent bulbs came energy-saving luminescent, which consume five times less electricity, while the level of lighting remains the same. What are they? This is a glass bulb of white color, coated on the inside with a phosphor and containing an inert gas with a small amount of mercury vapor. The collision of electrons with mercury vapor gives ultraviolet radiation, and it, in turn, due to the phosphor is converted into light, which we are accustomed to seeing. The lifetime of such lamps is about a year, or 10,000 hours of continuous operation. But this type of lighting lamps have one significant drawback: they contain mercury. Therefore, they require very careful use and special disposal conditions. They can not be dropped or simply thrown into a garbage can - after all, as is known, mercury vapor, even in small quantities, is very dangerous. In addition, getting into the air, they do not dissolve, but hang, poisoning everything around. Thus, the amount of mercury vapors from one broken lamp is approximately 50 mg 3 with an acceptable level of the vapor concentration of 0.01 mg / m 3 .

Another drawback of such lamps: the color of some of them is unpleasant for the eyes, their coverage is quite aggressive. The output is: when choosing a lamp, you should take into account its color temperature. It is measured in Kelvin (K). So, a softer, warmer shade is given by lamps marked 2700K - 3000K, this is the most optimal indicator for human eyes when working indoors, since it is the closest to natural sunlight.

Application of daylight lamps

Among the huge number of lamps there are those whose main task is to work continuously for hours on end. They are used in certain types of premises: hospitals, supermarkets, warehouses, offices. It is believed that their light is the closest to the natural, hence the name: daylight lamps.

Lamps are produced in the form of an elongated glass tube with contact electrodes at the edges. They found application at home. They are used as the main source of light on the ceiling or mounted on the walls as an additional. Very convenient, for example, in the kitchen, above the work surface, when directional lighting is necessary, or as decorative lighting in niches, under shelves and paintings, for illuminating aquariums or heating indoor plants in the cold season. They work from an ordinary network and do not require special current converters. Such lamps are considered energy saving, as compared to the incandescent lamp of the old sample, they practically do not heat up, they consume up to 10 times less energy, and their service life is about 10,000 hours of continuous operation. But there is one nuance: such lighting is usually used indoors at a temperature of 15-25 degrees. At lower temperatures, they simply will not work. In addition to white and yellow, these lamps can emit other shades: blue, red, green, blue, ultraviolet. The choice of color depends on the purpose and the field of application.

Halogen lamps

To date, not one type of lamp is used, consuming half as much electricity as their predecessors. Such lamps are classed as energy-saving. These are halogen lighting lamps, widely used in everyday life. Due to their compact dimensions, it is convenient to use them in lighting fixtures such as floor lamps, sconces, ceiling lamps with a non-standard lamp, for decorative built-in lighting. To fill the bulb of such a lamp a mixture of special gases with bromine or iodine vapor is used. When the device is connected to the mains, the filament (tungsten spiral) warms up and gives a glow. Unlike a conventional light bulb, here tungsten does not settle on the walls of the bulb when heated, but in conjunction with the gas it gives a brighter and longer glow, up to 4000 hours. Such lamps radiate ultraviolet rays, which is very harmful to the eyes. Therefore, quality lamps have a special protective coating. They are very sensitive to voltage drops and very quickly can fail.

Energy-saving lamps

A universal and energy-efficient light source for today is considered to be those that use several times less energy for work, while not reducing the power of the produced stream. As, for example, energy-saving lamps intended for residential and office premises. They are universal and can be used in lighting devices of different types.

Characteristics of lighting lamps of this type: power consumption is several times lower than that of incandescent lamps, they serve up to 10 times longer, do not heat up, do not flicker, do not hum, are strong enough and do not contain dangerous components.

Among the shortcomings can be identified the following: slow warming up (up to 2 minutes), work at a temperature of at least 15 degrees. They can not be used outdoors in open luminaires.

The main advantages of LEDs

But one of the most profitable in terms of energy savings are LED or LED-lamps. Translated from English LED - light emittingdiode - "light-emitting diode". Light output of such lamps is 60-100 Lm / W, and the average service life is 30 000-50 000 hours. At the same time, modern lighting lamps of this type do not heat up and are completely safe to operate. Well, if one of the light bulbs burns out, it will not affect the operation of the whole mechanism, it will continue to work.
The color temperature is quite diverse - from soft yellow to cold white. The choice of color depends on the use of the room and the preferences of the host. So, for example, for office it is better to choose a bright white with a mark of 6400K, for a children's room natural light, not such aggressive, 4200K, and for a bedroom - a little yellowish shade, 2700К will approach.

And one more plus: they lack the main disadvantage of fluorescent lamps: buzzing and flickering, and the eyes in such lighting is very comfortable. They work from the usual 220 W network and are equipped with a standard socle E27 and E14.

Using LEDs in everyday life

Interestingly, even a decade ago, there was no such thing as a LED lamp for a house. How to choose and install them, could tell, perhaps, that the auto mechanic - after all they were used mainly on the dashboard of the car and light indicators. Today, their operation at home has become so familiar that we do not even think about choosing between LED lamps and old-style lamps, so the choice is obvious and not in favor of the latter. The main point: in LED lamps, the current is a constant value, so the heating costs are minimal. Consequently, they do not heat up and, like daylight lamps, can serve many years in a row. Even despite their high cost, they are profitable to use. Consuming less energy, these lamps help reduce the monthly amount of payment for electricity. By the way, when choosing LED lamps for a house, one should take into account such a difference in power. There is one secret. It is necessary to know the power consumed by the general-purpose lighting lamp and divide it by 8. For example, if you change the usual luminaire to 100 W, then 100: 8 = 12.5. Hence, we need a LED lamp with a power of 12 watts.

Another no less important indicator - these lamps have different temperatures of light. From this indicator depends on how comfortable lighting will give the LED lighting lamp in the room. Of the existing shades of white light, the most optimal shade is in the range of 2600-3200 K and 3700-4200 K. Such light is soft, most close to natural sunlight and pleasing to the eyes. The indicator of 6000 K gives a very cool white hue, and less than 2600 K - oppressive yellow. Such shades are harmful to the eyes, people quickly get tired, headaches may appear and vision deteriorate. Therefore, it is very important to purchase only high-quality LED lamps for the home. How to choose, advise the consultant in the store, as well as provide all the necessary quality certificates.

Whatever one may say, a LED lamp is beneficial in many respects.

- It consumes several times less electricity.

- It does not heat up during operation, which makes it possible to use it with flammable materials, for example, in cornices, false ceilings. A large number of such lamps do not overheat the air in the room.

- Such lamps do not burn out, and in time only lose their brightness, up to about 30%.

- Long service life, up to 15 years.

So, having an idea of what kinds of light bulbs are, knowing their main characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, you can safely go to the nearest store. But there is another important point, without which even a simple replacement of the burnt out lamp will be impossible. After all, to pick up a lamp to a lighting device, you need to know what kind of its cap. With the help of the cap, the lamp is attached to the cartridge, and it is he who supplies the electric current to the light bulb.

Correctly choose the socle

Metal or ceramic is used to make the socle. And inside are placed contacts that transmit electric current to the working elements of the device. Each lighting fixture is equipped with one or more lampholders for attaching lamps. It is important that the socle of the lamp purchased matches the cartridge. Otherwise it will not work.

Despite the variety of types of socles of electric bulbs in everyday life, two types are more often used: threaded and pin.

Screw cap is also called screw. The name accurately conveys the way it connects to the lamp holder. It is screwed into the lighting fixtures, for this purpose a thread is carved on its surface. For marking use the letter E. This type is used in many types of lamps in household appliances. Such socles differ in size. So, marking the socle, after the Latin letter E, the manufacturer always indicates the diameter of the threaded connection. In everyday life, plinths of two sizes - E14 and E27 - are most often used. But there are also more powerful lighting lamps, for example, for street lighting. They use the socle E40. The size of the threaded connections remains unchanged for many decades. Even now, you can easily replace a burnt out ordinary bulb in an old chandelier for a more economical, LED. The dimensions of the cap and the cartridge are exactly the same. But other parameters have been adopted in America and Canada. Since the voltage in the network is 110V, in order to avoid the use of light bulbs of European design, the diameter of the socle is different: E12, E17, E26 and E39.

Another type of socle, used in everyday life, is a pin. To the cartridge it is attached using two metal pins. They act as contacts that transmit electricity to the light bulb. Pins differ in diameter and distance between them. For marking use the Latin letter G, followed by a numerical designation of the gap between the pins. These are socles G4, G9 and G13.

Now you can safely proceed to repair. And let the redevelopment or the construction of new walls can only be done by specialists, but with the choice and replacement of electric bulbs you will be able to cope on your own.

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