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The Parliamentary Monarchy

The parliamentary monarchy is a special kind of government in which real power, the constitutional and legal status of an autocrat are significantly limited by constitutional provisions. Thus, the head of state reigns, but does not rule. The parliamentary monarchy assumes only a formal existence of the monarch's rights. His right to impose a veto on the laws of the autocrat either does not use in practice, or uses this right in accordance with the instruction of the government.

The parliamentary monarchy presupposes the political responsibility of the government for its activities before the parliament. If the latter expresses mistrust or refuses to trust the former, the government will be forced to resign independently or the head of state will resign.

As a rule, the parliamentary monarchy does not provide for independent activity of the autocrat (the king). All its acts are prepared and consolidated by the government. The acts are being counteracted by the head of the government or by one or another minister. Otherwise, the normative documents will not have legal force.

Judicial power is exercised by independent courts, but enactment of judgments and enforcement of sentences is carried out on behalf of the king.

But these facts should not be perceived in such a way that the parliamentary monarchy gives the institution of the king a purely nominal character. Some detachment of the autocrat from the process of governing the country does not mean that his role in domestic politics is reduced to zero. In this case, we should recall the Spanish King Juan Carlos, who, being the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, stopped the military coup in the country. Moreover, in some parliamentary monarchies (for example, in Thailand, Malaysia and others) heads of state are endowed with significant powers and rights.

In the state there is a parliamentary regime or parliamentarism, provided that there is no party with a majority in parliament and capable of forming a one-party government. At the same time, than the party coalition is broader, the more difficult it is for partners to reach agreement on solving various political issues. Often when one party withdraws its representatives from the government, it loses the majority in parliament and is forced to resign.

Today, parliamentary monarchies are considered much more common than dualistic and absolute. However, in many cases, only a tribute to tradition is given, which helps to maintain citizens' respect for the state. Thus, modern parliamentary monarchies have insignificant differences from the republics. At the same time, there is in some way an "intermediate form of government". Elective monarchy is a type of state system in which there is no automatic inheritance of power by the next monarch (after leaving, ending of authority or death of the previous one). In this case, the head of the country is elected realistically or formally.

It should be noted that parliamentary monarchies exist in sufficiently developed countries. In these states the transition to the industrial system from the agrarian took place without being accompanied by radical changes in the existing institutions of power. Gradual adaptation to new conditions was carried out. These countries include Great Britain, Japan, Denmark, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Canada and others. These powers are characterized by a developed division of power against the background of recognition of the power over the executive bodies over the parliament, as well as, if not democratic, then, at any rate, liberal state regime.

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