Leukocyte blood formula: decoding in children (normal)

Leukocytes are the most important elements in a person's blood, they help protect against the harmful effects of harmful microorganisms and substances. They are able to disarm all alien particles that have got into the body. Proceeding from this, it is possible to say for sure that the behavior and condition of these cells can indicate an inflammatory process, a blood test in sufficient detail can indicate the existing pathologies in the body. That is why during the diagnosis of the patient, it is simply necessary to know the number of white blood cells, for this purpose, a special study is made in which the leukocyte blood formula is studied. Decoding in children and adults can be very different, so everyone needs to know exactly how to read the analysis data. They will help to find out the nature of the disease, the cause and prevent the consequences.

Leukocyte formula: what does it consist of?

The leukocyte formula of blood (decoding in children and adults has its differences) is not just one leukocyte, but several of their varieties, each of which is responsible for the operation of a particular system.

Leukocytes are blood cells responsible for protecting the body. Their goal is to create a kind of border that must not be crossed by harmful bacteria, toxic substances and foreign bodies. It is only to get into the body bacteria, how they signal about this increase in indicators, you can see them on the blood test. Leukocytes are divided into several varieties: basophils, monocytes, neutrophils, eosinophils and lymphocytes. And they all carry out a certain task. But what functions are assigned to them?

Neutrophils are responsible for safety, they must recognize the virus, embrace it and destroy it. They come in several varieties:

  • Myelocytes and metamyelocytes - these cells can not be found in the body of a healthy person, they appear only if a leukocyte blood formula has been taken for examination, the norm in which is broken, and bacteria have already appeared in the blood that caused serious pathology;
  • Stabs appear if there is an infection of a bacterial nature in the body, their number begins to grow if the segmented nuclei can not neutralize the microorganisms that caused the infection;
  • Segmented nuclei are in the body in the largest number, since they are assigned the role of body defenders.

Eosinophils are a kind of protective barrier against all kinds of bacteria, and they appear most often if the human body is progressing allergies, oncology or autoimmune pathology.

Lymphocytes help to create antiviral immunity, because they have the ability to fix antigens in their memory and take a direct part in the development of antibodies.

Monocytes by design are similar to neutrophils, but differ in that they have the ability not only to capture and destroy pathogenic bacteria, but also to absorb dead cells, so they purify the blood, allowing tissue to regenerate.

Basophils appear at a time when the body is allergic reactions, they do not allow harmful bacteria and toxins to spread.

The leukocyte blood formula (decoding in children 2 years old and any other age is slightly different) allows to assess the patient's condition, to reveal the severity of the disease, what causes it, and what the consequences may be.

Why know the formula of blood and when it is considered?

Doctors at any complaints of the patient immediately prescribe a blood test. The leukocyte formula (decoding of children of different ages is different) will allow to identify infection, inflammation or foreign body in the body.

The analysis is assigned under these conditions:

  • At preventive examination;
  • Children from birth to one year;
  • Before the planned vaccination;
  • When planning a pregnancy;
  • When applying to medical institutions with suspicions of the presence of pathology;
  • With exacerbation of a chronic illness.

With symptoms such as diarrhea, nighttime increased sweating, enlarged lymph nodes, weight loss, shortness of breath, the leukocyte blood formula (decoding) is considered. Are lymphocytes elevated? Then immediately you can determine what triggered the symptomatology. It is also recommended to conduct this study if the patient has a high fever, chills, headache and body aches.

Analysis technique

To calculate the leukocyte formula with a blood smear, it is necessary to conduct several specific manipulations, dry it, treat it with a special dye and examine the material under a microscope. The laboratory assistant considers only those cells that he sees under a microscope until eventually he accumulates a hundred and sometimes two hundred cells.

Counting of white blood cells is carried out by a laboratory assistant visually, using a microscope for help. Leukocytes are distributed unevenly on the smear surface: eosinophils, basophils and monocytes can be seen closer to the edges, while lymphocytes are in the center.

Laboratory technicians can count counting in two known ways:

  • The Schilling method, which allows to determine the number of white blood cells in 4 sections of the smear;
  • The method of Filipchenko, which involves the division of the smear into three parts and the conduct of counting.

On the form in certain columns, the total number of cells is marked, and after each count of the white blood cells separately.

It should also be said that such a cell count is not exactly accurate, and all because there are a lot of difficult to remove factors that introduce their errors: error during sampling, preparation and coloring of the smear, individuality of the organism, human factor in interpreting the results. The peculiarity of several types of cells in the smear is an uneven distribution, which makes it difficult to count.

If a more accurate result is needed, the leukocyte indices are calculated, which represent the ratio of different types of leukocytes, and sometimes the ESR index is taken into account in the analysis.

These kinds of indices allow us to determine the severity of intoxication and characterize the body's ability to adapt, that is, the ability to adapt to the effects of toxins and cope with them without harm to health. In addition, they provide an opportunity:

  • Get all the necessary data about the patient's condition;
  • Assess how the immune system works;
  • Determine the resistance of the body;
  • To determine the level of immunological reactivity.

The norm of the leukocyte formula in the adult population

The leukocyte blood formula, decoding in adults and children of which should only be carried out by a specialist who can immediately detect even the slightest change and assign the appropriate treatment package, contains important parameters. But everyone who wishes can independently compare the analysis indicators with the norm, for this it is necessary to have an idea of what values can be seen in it and what their changes indicate in either of the parties:

  • Hemoglobin is a special protein that is found in red blood cells, responsible for the transport of oxygen through the blood vessels. The norm for men is 130-160 g / l, for the female organism is 120-140 g / l. The level of hemoglobin may increase in case of problems with the heart, diabetes or diseases of the hematopoietic system, but if the level is low, this may indicate anemia and leukemia.
  • Erythrocytes carry oxygen and carbon dioxide. Their norm in blood is: for men - 4,0-5,0 × 1012 / l, for women - 3,6-4,6 × 1012 / l. They increase with genyantritis, bronchitis and other diseases of the respiratory tract, and a low level indicates infections and viruses.
  • Hematocrit is an indicator of how the volume of erythrocytes is related to the total volume of plasma. The norm for the male population is 42-50%, for women it is 34-47%. Increases in the rate can occur with diabetes, dehydration, heart and respiratory problems, and low - with anemia or kidney failure.
  • Leukocytes are directly involved in the immune system. They are the main ones when the leukocyte blood formula is checked. Norm In adults it is 4.0-9.0 × 109 / l. If they are elevated, then this indicates a purulent inflammation, leukemia, acute rheumatism and malignant neoplasms.

As already mentioned, leukocytes in the blood test are presented in several forms.

  • Neutrophils are: segmented or stab, this is the most numerous of the cell types that contains the leukocyte blood formula. The segmentation of segmented neutrophils is normal in adults in the range of 50-70%, and stabnoid neutrophils - 1-3%. Their number may be higher than normal with oncology, inflammation of internal organs and malfunctions in metabolic processes. But the decrease in their number indicates infection, blood pathology and thyrotoxicosis.
  • Eosinophils are leukocytes that fight with malignant cells, it is they that help to cleanse the body of infection and toxins. The norm in the blood in adults is 1-5%. Elevated levels indicate infections, tumors and blood diseases, and a decrease indicates intoxication or purulent processes.
  • Monocytes are one of the largest in size leukocytes, recognizing foreign substances in the body. Leukocyte blood formula (decoding in adults) Says that monocytes should normally be 3-9%. Excess of the norm indicates the presence of a viral or fungal infection, and a decrease in aplastic anemia or purulent potalogy.
  • Basophils are involved in the formation of delayed-type inflammatory reactions. Their rate is 0.0-0.5%. Excess of it can talk about the presence of allergic reactions, pathologies of the thyroid gland, myeloleukemia, chickenpox, hemolytic anemia.
  • Lymphocytes are a type of leukocytes that participate in cellular and humoral immunity due to antibodies. Their norm in the blood of an adult is 20-40%.

From the foregoing it is clear which normal values are given by the leukocyte blood formula (decoding in adults). Norm The children have a slightly different and need to know what it shows.

What will the children's formula of blood tell us about?

It is significantly different from that of adults. So, from 1 year to 3 years, the ratio of segmented nuclei should be within the range of 32-50%, and the number of stabnuclear ones should not exceed 1%, as well as basophils. Eosinophils should be from 1 to 4%, and lymphocytes - 38-58%, monocytes - 10-12%.

The leukocyte formula of blood, decoding in children of 5 years, does not change, all indicators remain the same. The only difference is an increase in segmented neutrophils from 36 to 52% and a decrease in lymphocytes to 33-50%.

There are no precise rules for changing the blood test for leukocytes. With various pathologies, the indicator may vary in the same way, but with one disease it can differ significantly in different patients, and this is due to the individual characteristics of the organism.

Elevated leukocytes on what can indicate?

When a doctor recommends a blood test, the leukocyte blood formula will be examined simultaneously. Decoding in children and adults can indicate an increase in the number of neutrophils, in medicine this is called neutrophilia, and the overestimated indicators can indicate the following:

  • The presence of infection caused by bacteria, fungi, certain viruses or protozoa;
  • The onset of the inflammatory process, for example, it may be rheumatism, pancreatitis, peritonitis, dermatitis and others;
  • The appearance of a tumor on one of the organs;
  • Poisoning with heavy metals;
  • Endogenous intoxication;
  • Ischemic necrosis of tissues;
  • Taking certain drugs that can change the composition of the blood;
  • The presence of stressful situations in the life of the patient or physical overstrain, also this condition is often observed after surgical treatment.

An increased number of lymphocytes - lymphocytosis, may indicate:

  • Complex forms of infectious diseases, including HIV, mononucleosis, acute viral infections, pertussis, hepatitis;
  • Pathologies that affected the hematopoietic system: lymphocytic leukemia, Franklin's disease, lymphosarcoma;
  • Poisoning with poisons and heavy metals.

Elevated level of eosinophils - eosinophilia, may indicate:

  • Penetration into the body of parasites;
  • Pathologies provoked by the presence of protozoa;
  • Allergies, which are expressed in the form of eczema, asthma, hay fever or particular intolerance to certain foods;
  • Myocardial infarction.

An increased number of monocytes is a sign of monocytic leukemia or pulmonary tuberculosis.

An increased number of basophils that make up the smallest part of white blood cells can indicate a chronic ulcerative colitis or neglected blood diseases.

As is clear from the above, the leukocyte formula of blood, decoding in children and adults, is very important, because it is thanks to it that you can quickly identify health problems and begin treatment.

Lowered leukocytes indicate what?

A reduced number of neutrophils may indicate the presence of such pathologies in the patient's body:

  • Influenza, chicken pox, hepatitis, rubella;
  • Typhoid fever and brucellosis;
  • Typhus and malaria;
  • Weak immunity in elderly people;
  • Blood diseases: leukemia, iron deficiency anemia and others;
  • Taking antitumor drugs;
  • anaphylactic shock;
  • Congenital neutropenia.

And if the leukocyte blood formula was verified (decoding), the lymphocytes are below the norm according to its results, then this can indicate such diseases:

  • Acute form of infection;
  • immunodeficiency;
  • Miliary tuberculosis;
  • Aplastic anemia;
  • lupus erythematosus;
  • Kidney pathology.

Reduction of the norm of eosinophils, which occur in rare cases, may indicate:

  • Stress or shock;
  • The onset of inflammation;
  • Purulent infection of severe form.

The formula of blood in newborns

The leukocyte formula of blood, decoding in children after birth, is somewhat different and depends on age. In the first months after the birth of children, only the leukocyte formula is formed, it will persist until about one-year-old age. The indices of infants are unstable, they can be severely disturbed in diseases caused by climatic changes and anxiety. By the age of six, the content of neutrophils and lymphocytes is increasing, and by the age of 15 the formula is more like that of adults.

So, as the child grows, his leukocyte blood formula also grows. Deciphering in children of 6 years becomes more stable and does not change much with mood swings, as in infants. In newborns, neutrophils are in the range of 51-71%, in the first days after birth, the number increases, and then gradually decreases. The number of lymphocytes is also unstable and is 15-35%, and by the 14th day of life the level reaches 55%, but when the child is a week old, the curves of lymphocytes and neutrophils converge, such a crossing in medicine is called the first cross, but more on this later .

As for basophils, they do not have newborns, monocytes in blood make up 6.5-11%, and in a week their number increases to 14.1%, the lower limit - 8.4%. Plasma cells have a minimum amount of 6.4-11.2%. At infants from the first day to the seventh there is a visible shift to the left along the Schilling, which is established by the end of the first week.

A clear leukocyte blood formula is drawn for the first month of a newborn's life, the decoding of children varies in a wide range to a year, but by the age of 6 the formula is established and does not jump at the slightest stressful situations.

Shift formula

Thanks to modern technologies, today automatic blood analyzers make it possible to count the leukocyte form very quickly, and most importantly, which made it possible to greatly facilitate the diagnosis and establishment of an accurate diagnosis. During the analysis, the changes in the ratio of mature and immature neutrophils are taken into account, because in the blood formula they are present in different forms and are listed in order from young to mature, counting goes from left to right.

Lab technicians can document several types of shifts that indicate different pathologies.

If there is a shift to the left, then there are myelocytes and metamyelocytes in the blood. Such changes may indicate such processes:

  • Acute inflammatory processes: prostatitis, orchitis;
  • Purulent infections;
  • Acute bleeding;
  • acidosis;
  • Poisoning with toxins;
  • High loads.

If the leukocyte blood formula was verified (decoding in adults), the norm is broken in this case, shows a left shift with rejuvenation, this may indicate the presence of such pathologies:

  • Leukemia;
  • Erythroleukemia;
  • The spread of metastases;
  • Myelofibrosis;
  • coma.

Cross-section of the leukocyte formula

This formulation arises when the leukocyte blood formula is considered, the norm in children 3 years old or any other age. In this case, it is unstable. If in an adult any changes in the analysis indicate a pathology or the presence of pests, in children these changes may be associated with the formation of immunity. This phenomenon is considered not a pathology, but a normal phenomenon, but the main thing is not to miss the disease.

The first cross occurs in the first 7 days of life, when there is an equalization of the number of neutrophils and lymphocytes, after the lymphocyte content increases, and neutrophils, on the contrary, decreases. Such changes are considered normal and do not cause fear.

The second cross occurs in 5-6 years, and only in 10 indicators can come close to what is the norm in adults.

A blood test is a very serious analysis, which should not be ignored. Only a few grams of blood - and the whole picture is obvious. You can see any changes that will allow you to assess the health of the patient, and see even those pathologies that have not yet manifested itself in the form of symptoms.

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