The capital of the region of the springs, namely, the people say about Udmurtia, is Izhevsk. The city got its name thanks to the river on which it was founded. What is it called? What other rivers flow through the territory of Izhevsk? About everything in order.
General information about the city
In the XVIII century, the Russian state led an active foreign policy and needed a strong battle-worthy army. In this connection, the areas of the Middle Urals began to be actively developed, where deposits of magnetic iron ore were discovered. The construction of new plants began under the leadership of the mining engineer Alexei Moskvin.
It was Moskvin that determined the place in the upper reaches of the Izh River, where later the factory village, and later the city of Izhevsk, arose. The Kama River is 40 km from this place. The proximity of these waterways played a key role in choosing the location for the construction of the future city. The date of its foundation is 1760.
In different historical periods the city was called differently. Initially, from 1760 to 1918, it was simply called the Izhevsk Plant. From 1918 to 1984 years. Was listed by Izhevsk. In the era of "perestroika", not for long, from 1984 to 1987, it was Ustinov. From 1987 to the present day the city again bears its former name.
Now it is known which river in Izhevsk gave the name to the city. We will get acquainted with the river Izh in more detail.
The biggest river is Izhevsk
The name of the river Izh came from the Tatar language. In Udmurt, it is called Oӵ (Osh). The origin of these two names - Izh and Oy, and also how they are interrelated, has not been clarified until now.
Izh is the right tributary of Kama and flows through the territory of two republics - Udmurtia and Tatarstan.
By her birth she is obliged to merge the Big and Small Izh. The sources of these rivers are located in one of the Udmurt villages Maly Oshvortsy on the border of two districts - Igry and Yakshur-Bodinsky. In 1978, the river received the title of a nature monument of regional scale of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Flowing from north to south, Izh empties into the Kama about 120 km from its mouth, which is located in the flood zone of the Kamsky reservoir. The catchment area is 8510 square meters. Km.
Influence of a developed river system on the topography of the city
The need to create certain hydraulic structures on the Izh River affected the geographical features of the city under construction. A powerful dam was erected. Together with the embankment, its length was about 600 meters, width - 47 meters, height - 8.5 meters. Above the dam, a huge pond was formed (its length is 11.4 km, width is about 2.5 km), which is often mistaken for the lake.
All this determined the urban landscape. Izhevsk is spread, as they say in the people, on seven hills. Elevation differences range from 98 to 210 meters above sea level.
The first production buildings were built on the right low bank of the Izh, just behind the dam. On the left high bank was the dwelling of the plant manager. So there were two directions in the construction of the future city.
In addition, through the territory of the city there are many other small rivers, and there are up to 50 springs that come to the surface. The raised part of the city was not bogged down, unlike the low-lying Zareka, which flooded the rivers of Izhevsk in the flood. The city from its foundation was cut by a water obstacle in two. Today these parts are connected by three bridges.
Water resources of Izhevsk
As already mentioned, the numerous rivers of Izhevsk form the basis of its water resources. They flow right through the city. Not every city boasts such an extensive river network.
How many rivers are there in Izhevsk? The answer to this question is interesting to many. 22 rivers of Izhevsk have their names. The largest of them is the river Izh. Its total length is 259 km, and according to Izhevsk - 35 km. Then follows the river (as the length of the length decreases):
- Posm (Udmurt Poym) is the left tributary of the Izh River with a length of 52 km, flowing along the Pervomaisky district of Izhevsk.
- Luke (39 km) is the right tributary of the Izh, the source of which are marshes located to the west of Izhevsk.
- Men's or Pirogovka (length 38 km).
- Stream Pioneer.
- Chumoyka, as well as numerous small rivers and streams without names.
Fishing - one of the favorite occupations of the inhabitants of Izhevsk
The rivers of Izhevsk give an opportunity to the townspeople to spend their leisure time for catching fish. This is one of the most favorite activities for locals. More than 29 species of fish live in the rivers and reservoirs of the city and its environs. Among them, sturgeon, sterlet, whitefish, carp, gusster, asp, ide, glue, chub and others. Of the rare rare are salmon - whitefish, taimen, listed in the Red Book of Udmurtia. These types of fish are considered to be among the most expensive not only in the region, but also in the territory of Russia as a whole.
In recent years, new species of invaders have appeared among the local ichthyofauna, such as rotan, fish-needle, Charchal tulle and round goby. Thus, the diversity of fish resources is increasing.