It is not a secret to anyone that semisynthetic antibiotics have a wide spectrum of action. Such drugs are used to treat various inflammatory and infectious diseases. But before appointing such medication, the doctor should recommend the patient to undergo a medical examination. This is the only way to understand which antibiotic will effectively manifest itself in the therapy of a particular disease.
To treat the genitourinary system, as well as the respiratory tract, the "Cefotaxime" injections are actively used. Features of this drug, its contraindications, dosage and method of administration, we will consider below.
Composition, description, form and packaging of the medicine
What ingredients does the "Cefotaxime" drug contain? Injections (children dosage of this drug is set individually) include an active substance, such as cefotaxime (sodium salt).
The preparation itself is a white or yellowish powder, which is used to prepare a solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection.
The medication can be purchased in glass bottles, packaged in cardboard packages.
Do you know what the drug "Cefotaxime" is? Instructions for use (injections for children - a test is not an easy one, but what if it is necessary?), It is said that small drugs are prescribed with special caution because it is a semi-synthetic antibiotic. Its active substance is classified as the third generation cephalosporins.
It is used parenterally. It is active against gram-positive flora, as well as gram-negative microorganisms, which show high resistance to the action of aminoglycosides, sulfonamides and penicillin.
The principle of antimicrobial action of this drug is based on its ability to suppress the activity of transpeptidase. This is due to the blocking of the peptidoglycan.
Kinetic features of the drug
How is Cefotaxime absorbed? Abstract (injections - this is the only form of the drug) indicates that after intramuscular injection the highest concentration of the drug in the blood is observed after 35 minutes. Approximately 27-40% of the active substance binds to plasma proteins.
The bactericidal effect of the drug lasts for 12 hours. The drug is found in the gallbladder, myocardium, bone and soft tissues.
One can not help saying that the active component of this drug is able to penetrate the placenta and also be detected in the pleural, peritoneal, synovial, cerebrospinal and pericardial fluids.
About 90% of the drug is excreted in the urine.
With intramuscular injection, the half-life of the drug is 60-90 minutes, and for intravenous injections, 1 hour. Partially active ingredient is excreted together with bile. Cumulation of the drug is not observed.
Indications for use
At what diseases should I use the antibiotic "Cefotaxime"? Instructions for use (injections, the price of which is listed below, should be prescribed only by the doctor) states that this medication is indicated in the presence of infectious diseases.
It is very often used in the following pathologies of the respiratory system:
Also, the tool is effective when:
- Bacterial meningitis;
- Postoperative complications;
- Infections of soft tissues and bones;
- Lyme disease;
- Diseases of the urinary tract, throat, ear, nose, kidneys;
- Infections of joints and bones;
- Abdominal infections;
- Infections that have occurred against the background of immunodeficiency.
It should also be noted that the injections of "Cefotaxime" are often prescribed for the purpose of preventing infections that have developed after surgical interventions (including urological, obstetric-gynecological, on the gastrointestinal tract, etc.).
Contraindications to the use of the drug
About how to dilute the injection of "Cefotaxime", we will tell you a little later. It should be noted that this remedy does not have a very long list of contraindications. According to the instructions, this medication is not prescribed when:
- Individual hypersensitivity to the active component;
- Enterocolitis (including in history).
Can I inject a solution of Cefotaxime? Strokes to children (feedback on the effectiveness of the drug will be presented at the end of the article) is allowed to be done only after the patient reaches the age of 2.5 years (for the / m introduction).
With special care, the medication is prescribed for newborn babies during breastfeeding (since the drug is excreted in small amounts with the mother's milk), as well as in the presence of chronic kidney failure and NNC (including in history).
In the pathology of the renal and hepatic systems, the patient is required to undergo additional medical examination in order to obtain a conclusion about the absence of contraindications to antibiotic therapy.
The drug "Cefotaxime": instructions for use (injections)
How to dilute the powder correctly? To answer this question, let us turn to the attached instruction. It describes the detailed ways of preparing injection solutions.
So, for intravenous injection (injection) of the drug 1 g of powder dilute 4 ml of water for injection (sterile). Ready medication is administered slowly for 4-7 minutes.
For intravenous infusion, 1-2 g of the powder is diluted 50 or 100 ml of the solvent. As it is used 0.9% solution of sodium chloride or 5% glucose solution (dextrose). The duration of such an injection is 55-65 minutes.
For intramuscular administration of the drug, 1 g of the powder is dissolved 4 ml of the solvent. As it is used water for injection or 1% solution of lidocaine.
Thus, the drug in question can be administered intravenously drip or jet, and also intramuscularly.
The medication is usually prescribed to adult patients, as well as adolescents over 12 years of age with a body weight of more than 50 kg. When urgently needed, it is used to treat young children.
Dosage of the medicinal product
Now you know what you can do with Cefotaxime injections. But what is their dosage? It depends on the indications and severity of the disease.
For infections of the urogenital tract, as well as for uncomplicated infections, the drug is administered intravenously or intramuscularly 1 g every 9-12 hours.
For infections of moderate severity - 1-2 g every 12 hours.
With uncomplicated acute gonorrhea, medication is prescribed intramuscularly at a dosage of 1 g (once).
In severe infections (for example, with meningitis), the drug is used intravenously, 2 g every 6-9 hours. The maximum dose per day is 12 g. The duration of therapy is set individually.
To prevent the development of infectious diseases before surgery, the patient during the initial anesthesia once injected "Cefotaxime" at a dosage of 1 g. If required, the injection is repeated after 6-12 hours.
At caesarean section during the application of the clamps on the umbilical vein the drug is administered intravenously in the amount of 1 g. Further in 6-12 hours, an additional injection in the same dose.
Instruction for children
If necessary, injections of "Cefotaxime" to newborns, as well as premature infants under one week of age, are given intravenously in an amount of 50 mg per kg of body weight every 12 hours. At the age of 1-4 weeks, the drug is given in the same dose, but every 9 hours.
Babies older than 2.5 years with a body weight of less than 50 kg medication is prescribed intramuscularly or intravenously in an amount of 50-180 mg per kg of body weight (in 4 or 6 injections).
In severe infectious diseases, including meningitis, the daily dosage of the drug is increased to 100-200 mg per kg. In this case, injections are administered intramuscularly or intravenously in an amount of 4-6 times a day. The maximum dose of the drug per day is 12 g.
Against the background of the use of the drug "Cefotaxime" in patients can develop such local reactions as:
- Soreness with intramuscular injection;
- Phlebitis, developing with intravenous infusion.
The following undesirable effects can also be noted:
- Cholestatic jaundice, pseudomembranous colitis;
- Hepatitis, nausea, hypoprothrombinemia;
- Increased ALT, AST, hemolytic anemia;
- Diarrhea syndrome, a decrease in the number of platelets;
- Vomiting, neutropenia.
In rare cases, allergic responses are possible (increased number of eosinophils, Quincke's edema and skin itching), as well as interstitial nephritis and candidiasis.
When observing other negative effects, the doctor's help and independent withdrawal of the medicine are required.
Price and analogues of antibiotic
The cost of the drug in question depends on the margin of the network and the sales region. On average, ampoule-vials (5 pieces per 1 g) can be bought for 160-170 rubles.
If necessary, this medication can be replaced by such similar means as Claforan, Cefabol and Cefosin.
However, it should immediately be noted that these medications can only be used after consultation with the doctor.
Reviews about the antibiotic agent
In pediatric practice, this medication is often prescribed as an antimicrobial agent. As a rule, it is done in those cases when other antibiotics do not produce a positive therapeutic effect.
The consumer's comments about the injections of "Cefotaxime" are more positive. Patients' reports confirm its high antimicrobial effectiveness. However, one can also find such responses, which directly speak of the presence of a large number of negative reactions observed after treatment (bloating, dysbiosis, colic and others).