Hyperthyroidism: treatment, causes, diagnosis

Hyperthyroidism is accompanied by thyrotoxicosis - an increase in blood levels of hormones that are produced by the thyroid gland. Excessive number of them can lead to serious changes in the health and emotional state of the patient. In 80% of cases, these events indicate the patient's existing Basidovaya disease, also called diffuse toxic goiter. It is characterized by a visible increase in the thyroid gland, and subsequently - increased nervousness and excitability, trembling of the limbs. The eyes of these patients eventually bulge. As a rule, Basedova disease manifests itself at the age of 20 to 40 years.

Less common is Plummer's disease, or nodal toxic goiter. In this case, a thyroid gland produces a benign tumor that intensively produces hormones, which leads to an increase in their level and the development of thyrotoxicosis. Previously, this disease predominantly developed in the elderly, but in recent years, it has "grown younger." Hyperthyroidism, whose treatment depends on the causes that caused it, can also be a consequence of thyroiditis, an inflammation of the thyroid gland that occurs in subacute or chronic forms. So, with subacute thyroiditis, de Kerven, which usually develops after a viral disease, at the initial stage of the disease, thyrotoxicosis is observed. In addition to these diseases, the cause of hyperthyroidism can also be tumors of the pituitary and ovaries - in comparison with the listed diseases, they are rare. After an accidental overdose of drugs containing thyroid hormones, hyperthyroidism may also occur. Treatment in this case will consist, first of all, in the abolition of their admission and symptomatic therapy, and if necessary - and in gastric lavage.

To diagnose hyperthyroidism and establish the exact causes that lead to it, special studies are assigned: ultrasound of the thyroid gland, its scintigraphy, which allows to determine the activity of various sites, if necessary, biopsy, a blood test to determine the level of thyroid hormones, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) , Produced by the pituitary gland. During the preliminary examination and palpation of the neck area, an experienced specialist can already perform some differential diagnosis, establishing the presence of diffuse or nodular goiter.

Treatment of hyperthyroidism consists, first of all, in lowering the level of hormones to acceptable values. For this, both conservative and operational methods can be used - removal of the thyroid gland or part thereof. In the conservative treatment of hyperthyroidism, drugs that block the synthesis of its hormones - thionamides (propylthiouracil, mercazolyl, etc.) are used. During their administration, although not frequent (in 1-3% of cases), but serious enough side effects are possible - in particular, thrombocytopenia and agranulocytosis. For this reason, hyperthyroidism, which is treated with thionamides, requires control blood tests during the first 10 days of their admission. Do not discount the possible allergic reactions: dermatitis, hives, swelling Quincke. When intolerance of special drugs, a significant increase in the thyroid gland, its adenoma or multiple nodes, surgical intervention is indicated. Hyperthyroidism, whose treatment with these methods has proved ineffective, can be cured with radioactive iodine - a stable remission occurs in 90% of cases.

In various kinds of medical institutions, it is often possible to find recipes of traditional medicine, supposedly helping to get rid of thyroid diseases. However, with such a serious symptom as hyperthyroidism, treatment with folk remedies can not be considered a substitute for traditional methods. As is known, there are many diseases of the thyroid gland: some of them are accompanied by thyrotoxicosis, others - a decrease in the level of its hormones in the blood. Folk recipes, which will bring relief to one of them, will not give any noticeable effect to the other, and often can also hurt.

Hyperthyroidism requires adherence to a special diet. Meals should be at least five, not too abundant (fractional meals). Excluded are strong tea and coffee, spices, alcohol, chocolate, rich broths. The diet for hyperthyroidism involves the use of foods rich in calcium, phosphorus and potassium, as well as vitamins, in which the patient's body experiences an increased need.

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