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Einstein's postulates: teaching materials and elements of a special theory

Our world has seen a huge number of geniuses for its existence! The list of them from around the world can be continued indefinitely. There is a huge number of axioms, theories and hypotheses on which modern science is based. Great minds of all time and people built a foundation of physics on a brick. These include the postulates of Einstein, the Lorentz transformations, the Archimedes axiom, the Pythagorean theorem, the Heron formula, and many others. Each new discovery attracted a storm of excitement and symbolized a breakthrough in a certain area. In this article, all attention will be directed to the postulates of Einstein.

Biography of Einstein

Albert Einstein was born on 14.03.1879 in the city of Ulm (Germany), in the family of Jews. His father, along with his friend, were co-owners of a small factory for producing feather stuffing for pillows and mattresses.

The scientist's mother was from a fairly well-to-do dynasty that traded corn. Already a family man, Albert's father opened a company selling electric appliances.

In the fall of 1896, at the Polytechnic in Switzerland, Einstein met a student from Serbia Mileva Marich, who later became his wife.

The future scientist was so eager to receive Swiss citizenship that he refused German for this. In the end, he was able to achieve this in 1901.

Despite his talent and exceptional abilities, he for two years rushed about in search of work, even starved for despair, but did not stop doing physical sciences.

The attitude of others towards the works of Einstein

Many scientists of the time considered Einstein's work to be too innovative, as they negated some fundamental knowledge in this area. Some great minds of that century still decided to adhere to classical theories, while trying to derive alternatives that refute Enshnine's postulates, but were confronted with the fact that they are not applicable in practice.

The postulates of Einstein's theory of relativity more than once caused him to be nominated for the Nobel Prize. But such a revolutionary theory a little frightened the Nobel Committee, so they did not give him this award for a long time. But in 1922 he still was awarded her for the work on the photoelectric effect.

Personal qualities of a scientist

Albert was an open, affable, charming, optimistic and sympathetic person. His friends marked him with a great sense of humor.

He especially loved the music of the 18th century. I myself knew how to play the violin, which I always kept with me.

Einstein self-critically treated his work, always acknowledged his mistakes, even publicly. He was never ashamed of the fact that he could make mistakes, respected the works of other scientists, did not tolerate lies and injustice.

Albert Einstein was awarded a huge number of awards and distinctions, including posthumous.

In his honor, photon measurement units, chemical element No. 99, a small asteroid discovered in 1973, a gymnasium, an observatory, an institute, medical organizations, streets and, of course, medals and awards were named.

Interesting facts from life

    1. The most grandiose contribution of Einstein is considered to be the theory of relativity. Few people know, but along with him, a scientist (German by nationality) David Gilbert worked on it . One could even say that they worked in tandem, because they kept in touch and exchanged information during the research. The final equations of the theory of relativity they presented almost simultaneously, but they did it quite differently. Initially, many were confident that Gilbert could achieve the same result almost a week earlier, but introduced the public later to Albert, who received all the laurels and honors. Despite this, at the end of the 20th century, rough calculations and D. Gilbert's records were found, thanks to which it became clear that he could bring his theory to the end without the already published data. Although the scholars themselves did not care about these disputes at all.
    2. Einstein was able to develop such a refrigerator, which does not require electricity, which operates exclusively on low-power heaters. In 1930, a patent for it was sold to the company "Electrolux", but they, unfortunately, did not begin production of such equipment.
    3. The FBI of the United States of America considered Einstein to be a Soviet spy, so everything concerned with him was treated with extreme apprehension. By the end of his life, the dossier on him consisted of 1,500 sheets.
    4. Pacifist Einstein asked Roosevelt to disassemble the atomic bomb. He was categorically against it, considering it too dangerous a venture.
    5. Before his death, A. Einstein worked very hard on the implementation of the theory of the Single Field. Which is that with the help of one main and single-valued equation to formulate and integrate the interaction of the three main forces: electromagnetic, gravitational and nuclear. Perhaps Einstein was able to make a terrific discovery, but, alas, he burned these works. Now the descendants can only guess, what could he then come to.

The main contribution to the development of physics

The postulates of Einstein are the main key to explaining many physical phenomena. The works of the scientist gave a colossal start to the further development of science and changed the approach to the study of space and time. They are divided into two types: the postulates of the theory of relativity of Einstein and the principle of the constancy of the speed of light. These are completely new and unparalleled concepts in physics.

The first postulate of Einstein

It speaks of the constancy of natural laws and the equations that characterize them when a certain inertial system of the report changes to another.

The laws of deformation of the state of a physical system are not at all burdened by such a fact as to which of the two coordinate systems that are moving relative to each other, these deformations are related.

In simple words, he explained the movement of different inertial frames of reference or the movement of physical bodies moving with respect to each other at a constant speed. When one body (system) changes the trajectory or the speed of motion, at that moment GR applies (general relativity), and neither the other body (system) can be considered as a reporting system.

The second postulate

Next postulated by Einstein postulate: the speed of light in the presence of vacuum is unambiguous in all directions and will not change if the speed of movement of the light source deviates from the original value. Proceeding from this, one can conclude that the speed of light is limiting and constant, regardless of the inertial system of the report.

This amazing theory that the speed of light for all surrounding, no matter how they move, is absolutely the same (if certain auxiliary conditions are met), leads to the Lorentz coordinate and time transformations developed earlier at the time of transition from the original inertial reference frame to the new one , Which is changeable in relation to the first.

Unlike Lorentz, who viewed his formulas as unrealistic and fictitious, Albert Einstein brought them into action in reality.

This served as a source for obtaining the most important for science equation that connects the mass M, the energy E and the momentum P: E 2 = M 2 × c 4 + P 2 × s 2 .

Where c = speed of light. And the equation itself can be called one of the first prerequisites for the use of intranuclear energy.

Postulates of the special theory of relativity of Einstein

The special theory of relativity is the most important physical theory of space and time. The postulates of the SRT of Einstein serve as the main base for modern physicists and technicians. They are based on many subsequent discoveries of scientists from around the world. Elements of the special theory of relativity (Einstein's postulates) are often called relativistic theory, and those phenomena that it describes are a relativistic effect. This is best seen when moving bodies at a speed close to the speed of light in a vacuum c = 3 × 108 m / s. These postulates of Einstein were created in 1905.

The special theory of relativity is applicable only when the speed of objects remains unchanged and the motion occurs evenly. At the moment of deviation of either the speed or the path of movement, the laws of the SRT simply stop working. In this case, the general theory of relativity is applicable.

Albert Einstein - the catalyst for the development of science of his time

At the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, the physics of physics was in a critical situation. The way out of it was the refusal of Einstein from the classical view of space and time. What once seemed clear and obvious, in fact - changeable! Einstein's postulates prove that the quantities and concepts considered in constants in nonrelativistic physics are in the theory adjoined to the category of relative ones.

All the above postulates of Einstein gave a tremendous impetus to the development of physics as a science. He absolutely deservedly received the Nobel Prize and the worldwide recognition!

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