Krasnodar region is a recognized leader among Russian resorts. Here are concentrated a lot of beautiful health resorts, boarding houses, hotels, here they beat from under the earth curative springs, and the air is filled with the scents of the sea and evergreens. It is logical to assume that the ecology of the Krasnodar region should be one of the best in the country. However, the conducted studies and test measurements revealed a not quite favorable picture. It turned out that in many regions and cities of the region there were several times higher than the MPC norms for hazardous chemicals, the fertility of soils was reduced, water bodies were blocked, valuable species of plants and animals disappeared, acid rains fell out. Who is to blame for this and what actions are taken by the Ministry of Ecology of the Krasnodar Territory to save a unique ecosystem, our article answers.
The brainchild of technical progress - a car, is undoubtedly the greatest boon. But under certain conditions, when it comes to environmental pollution, it becomes the greatest evil. Krasnodar region in Russia occupies one of the leading places in terms of the number of vehicles that the population owns.
Statistics say that here one car falls on two people or 437 cars per 1000 inhabitants. For comparison, the same figure in Moscow is only 417 cars per 1,000 Muscovites. The ecology of the Krasnodar Territory suffers from so many machines. In addition, four highways of the European level and three federal highways pass through the territory of the region. In the high season, an endless series of people on their way to the sea are moving in their cars. Exhaust gases released into the atmosphere by road transport increase the content of hydrocarbons, CO 2 , CO, nitrogen oxides, which are hazardous to human health.
Especially high concentrations are observed near transport highways. Here, the indicators exceeded the MPC in 1.5 and even 7 times. According to economic services, in the Krasnodar Territory about 70% of gasoline is sold by private commercial companies, which are little worried about the quality of the goods. As a result, since 2010, 19% more formaldehyde has become available in Krasnodar air (negatively affects eyesight, lungs, reproductive organs, central nervous system, genetic material), 14% more benzpyrene (carcinogen, hazard class 1), 22% more phenol (Toxic to all living things).
The ecology of the Krasnodar Territory is deteriorating due to irrational use of farmland, the use of pesticides and herbicides, and violation of the rules for the use of agricultural machinery. As a result, the soils are compacted, their water permeability deteriorates, which leads to the flushing of 50% of the chemicals used by the agro-industrial branch into natural reservoirs.
Particularly affected by the Krasnodar region from introduced here rice-growing. Cultivation of this grain culture was widely developed in the Slavic, Krasnoarmeisk, Kalinin, Temryuk and Crimean regions. Technology of rice cultivation involves the use of a large number of pesticides, which not only poisoned the sown land, but also significantly worsened the living conditions of the population.
As in other Russian regions, the ecology of the Krasnodar Territory deteriorates significantly through the fault of industrial enterprises, whose managers do not bother to install modern efficient treatment facilities. In the Krasnodar Territory there are many machine-building, metalworking, chemical plants, but most of this region is famous for oil production. There are about 150 large, medium and small oil fields. The pollution of the natural environment with oil products and their waste takes a catastrophic scale. The commission found that in the cities of Eisk, Tikhoretsk, Tuapse, Kushchevskaya station (where there are oil depots and oil refineries) huge underground oil lenses were formed.
Many enterprises and utilities throw tons of untreated sewage into reservoirs, which significantly worsens the ecology of the Krasnodar Territory's natural resources. According to the commission, the annual discharges of liquid waste into the limans of the region and the Sea of Azov reach 3 billion m 3 ! The figures are truly frightening. In addition, the sea discharges oil products. So, when the Bulgarian ship crashed in the Tuapse port, 200 tons of fuel oil got into the sea, and when the Novorossiysk port crashed, our vessel poured tons of oil into the sea.
Animal and plant life
Negatively affect the problems of ecology in the Krasnodar Territory and the state of the biota that has been formed here for centuries. The development of housing in the region, the construction of new hotel complexes, the expansion of agricultural production, leads to the reduction of steppe and forest lands, unreasonable economic activity causes the water to be fanned and dried, and this in turn leads to the disappearance of many species of plants, fish, other representatives Fauna. Also to the catastrophic decline of fish in the Krasnodar Territory are river pollution and uncontrolled activities of fishing companies.
Rating of Krasnodar Krai cities in ecology
In Russia, the environmental situation in the regions is regularly monitored. Krasnodar region, according to measurements of the content of harmful substances in the environment, is not the most polluted, but not the most environmentally friendly. So, in the rating of the organization "Green Patrol" for 2011 out of 83 checked areas, it took 48th place. Rosstat compiled a list of the 60 most environmentally unfriendly Russian cities. Krasnodar in it took 42nd place, Novorossiysk 45th, and Achinsk 53rd. Unfavorable ecology also in Tikhoretsk, Yeisk, Tuapse, Armavir, Belorechensk, Kropotkin and Anapa.
According to the law of the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Region adopted in 2010, the state of the environment is regularly monitored to make the Krasnodar Territory much cleaner. The climate and ecology here should provide the most favorable conditions for life, and the local population, and numerous tourists.
To improve the current situation, in many cities stationary checkpoints have been installed, checking air, soil and water for the presence of harmful substances. A strict control of the radiation background is also underway, which is still within the norm. In Krasnodar, such posts are 4, in Novorossiysk - 3, in Sochi - 2, in Belorechensk, Tuapse and Armavir - 1. To stop contamination of the environment with petroleum products, the oil and oil refineries are certified. A lot of work is carried out by the Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision Service and the Land Resources Committee.
The Ministry of Ecology for the Krasnodar Territory creates new legal documents that regulate the protection of the environment. On the initiative of the Ministry's services, environmental contests, subbotniks and conferences are held, seminars are held that teach the population the issues of ecology, because the preservation of the beauty of the region depends on each of its residents.