HealthDiseases and Conditions

Diseases of the brain

Diseases of the brain can be congenital or acquired. They can be triggered by a metabolic disorder, vascular lesions, trauma, tumors, or infections.

The brain is a very complex structure. Surprising is the fact that in most cases it works continuously and effectively for more than sixty years. This indicates the presence in it of plastic and self-healing mechanisms. However, sometimes there is a violation of structural architectonics, chemical and electrical processes. Diseases of the brain, the development of which is associated with lesions in large anatomical structures, are detected using modern diagnostic measures. Diseases can occur due to compression, hemorrhage, inflammation, atrophy, degeneration or displacement. Listed below are some brain diseases.

Encephalitis is an inflammatory process. Distinguish between secondary and primary encephalitis. The primary type of this disease of the brain includes several of its types: epidemic, mosquito, enterovirus, tick-borne, herpetic and others. Secondary encephalitis accompanies other ailments: measles, influenza, toxoplasmosis and others. Given the etiology and pathogenesis, the following classification is accepted: toxic, allergic, infectious, infectious-allergic encephalitis. Polyencephalitis provokes a lesion of gray matter, leukoencephalitis - a white substance. When lesions of gray and white matter, the disease is classified as panencephalitis. In addition, encephalitis can be limited or diffuse, and in accordance with the course of the disease determine chronic, acute and subacute.

Parkinson's disease (Parkinsonism) is another brain disease that is characterized by a chronic progressive course. The disease has a distinctive feature, manifested in the involuntary trembling of the limbs.

Meningitis refers to inflammatory processes; In this case, the cerebrospinal and cerebral membranes are affected. The defeat of the hard shell is classified as pachymeningitis, with damage to the arachnoid and soft membranes leptomeningitis occurs. As practice shows, the most often diagnosed is the inflammation of the brain in the soft membranes, which is commonly called meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is characterized by more severe symptoms and course than the viral type. The emergence of this brain disease is provoked by microorganisms of pathogenic type (bacteria, viruses, protozoa). The defeat is typical for children and adolescents, as well as people in old age.

Hydrocephalus is a state of accumulation of excess fluid in the brain. Usually this is caused by blockage (obstruction), which disrupts the normal course of the fluid drainage process. The excess volume of fluid that accumulates in the brain presses its fragile tissues to the skull, causing the patient to develop brain damage.

The term encephalopathy is used for the designations of infectious diseases. Classification of emerging diseases in the brain, which are determined by this designation, is quite wide. In accordance with the causes of occurrence, several types of encephalopathy are determined. Mainly, they allocate perinatal and acquired encephalopathy. This is due to the difference in the causes of damage in the adult patient and fetus during gestation. Occurrence of encephalopathy of the perinatal type causes certain deviations in the process of childbirth or during the last months of development of the fetus. The acquired form of the disease is revealed at an older age. The cause of its occurrence can be intoxication, an infection, a trauma, a tumor, a change in the structure and functioning of the brain vessels.

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