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Demographic problem in the world: solutions

The population of our planet is in constant movement, i.e., reproduced through successive generations, varies qualitatively and quantitatively, including, due to migrations - territorial displacements. Thus, the demographic situation on the earth is formed. The demographic problem, along with the ecological, food, energy, raw materials, as well as the issue of preserving peace and disarmament, call for a common effort of the world community for its solution.

Rapid population growth in the world, a large part of which (up to ¾) falls on developing countries with an undeveloped social sphere and a backward economy, create a global demographic problem, the importance and importance of which was acknowledged by all states that realized that the arms race and the growth of armed conflicts , Especially in these underdeveloped countries, lead to enormous material costs, worsening the opportunities for economic growth and social development. The demographic problem in such countries is connected with the problems of food supply, ecology, provision of education, lack of natural resources, quality of life and employment of the population. A high percentage of young people in these countries (up to 40% of residents under the age of 15) will allow the continuation of trends in high population growth rates. Uncontrolled migration, as well as urbanization, are transformed from positive to negative phenomena.

In Japan, European countries and some CIS countries from the 80s of the XX century. There is a demographic crisis that manifests itself in the reduction of the able-bodied part of the population due to slow growth, aging and natural population decline. The demographic problem (that is, the reduction of the active population) in these countries is being addressed by the influx of immigrants from different countries. Demographic aging (over 12% of the population under the age of 60 and over 7% over the age of 65) is a natural process based on the improvement of the quality of life, the successes of medicine and other factors that contribute to the prolongation of the life of a significant part of the population. So, the global demographic problem is:

A) in the rapid and poorly controlled growth of residents in developing countries;

B) the aging of the population in developed countries and countries with economies in transition.

It is clear that the solution of such numerous problems is possible only through joint efforts of the entire world community. In 1969, within the framework of the United Nations (UN), the United Nations Fund was established, which is engaged in activities in the field of world population and conducts World conferences under its auspices. Over the past 30 years, three such conferences have been held: in 1974 - in Bucharest (Romania), in 1984 - in Mexico City (Mexico), in 1994 - in Cairo (Egypt).

The main difficulties at the first World Conference were to solve the problems of migrants: the legal use of their labor by importing countries, combating discrimination in society and the labor market, protecting their rights and the rights of their families.

The period between the first and second conferences is characterized by an increase in the number of refugees in the world, which, along with other problems, was reflected during the conference in Mexico City (in 1984). Then a new approach was proposed (and adopted), recognizing the diverse nature of international population movements.

At the Third International Conference in 1994, Cairo adopted a 20-year Program of Action, taking into account the main requirement in world politics - to ensure sustainable development. It emphasized that migration should be a positive factor that favorably influences the development factor of host countries.

All conferences dealt with mortality and fertility, population growth, urbanization and migration.

The demographic problem of mankind Can be solved. For this, according to the World Plan, first of all, socio-economic transformations in developing countries are required. Family planning programs will help improve the reproduction of the population.

The demographic problem of high fertility in China is solved by the restriction of fertility: the family here is forbidden to have more than 1 child. Restrictions are also found in the multi-populated India, whereas in the developed countries of Europe (Germany, Denmark, France), on the contrary - families with 2 or more children are provided with various benefits.

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