Multifaceted and complex processes of the origin of peoples and cultures constantly attract the attention of researchers of different years. The centuries-old history of the Ukrainian nation made it possible to create its own cultural heritage and make a significant contribution to world culture.
Origins. Trypillian culture
The history of Ukrainian culture dates back to the 4th millennium BC. E. It is by this time that scientists attribute the flowering of Trypillian culture. The first inhabitants of the Ukrainian lands were farmers and pastoralists. They cultivated land, raised cattle, and engaged in various crafts.
Tripolye lived in quite large cities, the number of which was about 10 thousand inhabitants. They worshiped their own gods, conducted their own calendar, regularly observed the movement of heavenly bodies.
Ukraine between the old and new era
Cimmerians inhabited the territory of modern Ukraine in the 9th-7th centuries. BC. This nomadic tribe did not have a developed culture, leaving behind many reminders. Pottery and copper products of the Cimmerians, preserved to this day, surprise with the fineness of the work and the elegance of finishing even the sophisticated connoisseurs.
The culture of Ukraine received a powerful push in the heyday of the Scythian power. A lot of works of art and objects of life archeologists find during the excavation of Scythian mounds. The heyday of the Scythian power falls to 4 in BC. E. Subsequently, the Scythian state was conquered and assimilated by the Sarmatians. Monuments of culture of Ukraine of that time are ceramic products, jewelry made of precious metals, weapons.
The Scythians and Sarmatians had extensive trade and cultural ties with Greek policies, which flourished on the shores of the Black Sea. It is from the written sources of the Greeks that contemporaries derive information about the culture of the Pra-Ukrainian peoples of those times. Greek cities fell into decline by the 5th century AD. E., When the beginning of a new Slavic state - Kievan Rus.
Culture of Kievan Rus
At the beginning of the first millennium, the civilization of the Eastern Slavs began to form. Small tribes united in alliances, cities and defensive fortifications arose. Our ancestors perfectly knew the nature of their land, worshiped their gods. Even before the adoption of Christianity, the Slavs had developed architecture, there was a written language and a set of beliefs that explained the origin of the elements and natural phenomena.
Kievan Rus existed in the 9-13 centuries. The culture of the people of Ukraine derives its origin precisely in the heritage of this great state. Together with Christianity, written language has come to these lands, trade and cultural ties with other countries have revived. The culture of Ukraine of the epoch of Kievan Rus is known to us thanks to the literature of that time, magnificent examples of temple and secular architecture, icon painting and oral folklore. By the time of Kievan Rus' the Cathedral of St. Sophia in Kiev is a fine example of ancient Ukrainian architecture.
Constant invasions of nomads and bloody feuds have turned a great country into many small principalities. So Kievan Rus ceased to exist.
Culture of Ukraine in the 14-17 centuries
Most of the territory of modern Ukraine in the 14th century became part of the principality of Lithuania. The cultural traditions of Rus gave an impetus to the formation of educational and cultural processes in the Lithuanian principality.
The first book printer in Ukraine was the Bulgarian Ivan Fedorov. Having mastered the book publishing business in Moscow, he arrived in Ukraine in 1566, where he founded the first printing house in Zabludov. In these years the first Ukrainian books are published - "Abetka" and "The Teaching Gospel." Later, a branch was opened in Ostrog. He became famous for the fact that the Ostroh Bible was published there.
During this period, Ukrainian architecture is being transformed. In buildings and locks, defensive elements disappear, locks become more comfortable and spacious. The ancient buildings are restored, the tree is replaced by a stone.
Noticeable changes have occurred in Ukrainian icon painting. The Ukrainian icon acquires its own recognizable features, the images become warm and humane. There are more everyday and genre scenes in painting.
Education in Ukraine
The development of culture in Ukraine after the collapse of the Lithuanian principality slowed down somewhat. This is due to the fact that most of the Ukrainian lands became part of the Commonwealth. Ukrainian culture and the Orthodox Church began to be pressured by the Polish authorities. During this period a special literary genre arises - polemical literature, in which Ukrainian authors defended their national and religious authenticity. The level of education is increasing, a large number of schools and theological institutions are being formed, and in 1701 the Kyiv-Mohyla Academy, the first higher educational institution of the Eastern Slavs, was founded.
The impetus for the further development of the Ukrainian nation was the national revolution in 1648-1676. The culture of Ukraine of the 18th century is characterized by the emergence of a special artistic style, called the "Ukrainian Baroque". The art of this trend is characterized by dynamism, a tendency to allegory, pomp and theatricality of reality.
Ukrainian culture of the 18th century
Architectural monuments of Ukrainian culture give an idea of this particular style, which successfully combined the European style with the traditions of ancient Russian architecture. Excellent examples of Ukrainian Baroque architecture are the Intercession Cathedral in Kharkov and St. George's Church of the Vydubitsky Monastery in Kiev.
Painting of the 18th century reflected the world trend of baroque style - rich decorations, gilding and complex semantic composition. This trend has touched and icon painting. In the images there is an introduction of the Ukrainian ethnic type, and historical figures are also iconic. In the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra the school of iconography opens.
The development of culture in Ukraine can not be imagined without the literary masterpieces of that time. In the literature there are new directions: in contrast to dogmatic religious literature secular works of various genres - satire, epigram, poetry and others are created. By this time belongs the famous "Aeneid" Kotlyarevsky, Odes G. Skovoroda and the scientific works of F. Prokopovich.
Summarizing, we can say that the culture of Ukraine in the 17-18 century gained a second wind and began to develop and develop new trends in art, painting and literature.