The question of preparing preschool children for school was always acute and worthwhile. Many caregivers and parents prefer simply to "train" children according to the program intended for training in the first grade. It seems that by teaching a child to read, count and write, you can greatly facilitate his school life. But this is not so. This option is completely ineffective.
The harm from "training" a preschooler in the school curriculum
Yes, at first the baby will be very easy to learn, because what the peers are going through, he already knows. Therefore, he will gradually lose interest in studies. And after the stock of knowledge obtained at preschool age has dried up, he will simply lag behind classmates.
This reverse effect is explained by the fact that in primary school we do not need knowledge acquired beforehand, but formed skills for learning activity. Immediately the question arises whether enough to prepare for school only the last year of pre-school childhood.
In order to simply "train" a child, this time may be enough, but to qualitatively prepare for training, you need to start classes in the kindergarten in the older group. And the teaching of children should take place in the form of a game, and not parody school lessons.
What is the purpose of pursuing classes with preschoolers?
Once the decision of the issue on the qualitative preparation of preschool children to study in grade 1 took over the kindergarten, the senior group now takes the same lessons as the preparatory one, so that the children have time to develop the necessary skills, perseverance, and the ability to think logically.
The task of the teacher at the same time is to transfer to children not only the necessary knowledge, but also skills and abilities. This gives an opportunity to form the child's curiosity, ability to work together, independence, and also enriches the spiritual and physical culture.
All teachers of pre-school establishments must compulsorily prepare the course notes in the kindergarten. DOW, which starts working on the FOGS system, the main requirement for learning is the presence in any of them of various game elements. Through this form, children are much better able to comprehend the necessary knowledge and skills.
What are the features and structure of classes in the older group?
Classes in kindergarten are given the main place. Training for senior preschoolers is carried out for the most part in the form of work in subgroups. This includes classes from the cognitive cycle: preparing for the development of reading and writing, mathematics, acquaintance with the surrounding world, the development of musical-rhythmic abilities and artistic-productive activities.
Their peculiarities are both the conduct of the whole exercise in the form of a game, and the inclusion in its structure of various game elements. This makes it easier not only to get the child the necessary knowledge, but also to fix them. Through the game it is easier to learn how to apply them in practice, since such activity is the main one for children of this age.
The structure of the classroom in the kindergarten in the senior group is determined by its program content. It usually consists of several parts (one to five). The number depends on the age of the children and the nature of the tasks assigned to them.
Each part of the lesson is its structural unit and includes various methods and techniques, as well as didactic means, which are aimed at the realization of a specific task.
What kind of mathematical knowledge do senior preschoolers need?
The program of the senior group of the kindergarten provides for a significant expansion and generalization of the most elementary mathematical representations, as well as an account. Children
This age should learn to count to 10 and perceive various objects, not only visually, but also to the touch or by sounds.
At the age of 5, you can begin to form the notion that any subject is divided into several identical or different parts, and you can compare them. In addition, children are convinced that the sets that contain the same number of elements appearing in it correspond to one natural number (the asterisk has 5 ends, 5 apples, 5 rabbits, etc.).
What knowledge is acquired by preschoolers in mathematical exercises?
Mathematics in the older group of kindergartens teaches children to correctly distinguish such geometric figures that are close in form, for example, a square and a rectangle, and also analyze objects and describe their shape, evaluate the dimensions in three dimensions: length, width and height.
It is fixed in the senior preschoolers and the ability to determine by words how objects are relative to each other (right, left, ahead), freely orientate in space (standing near the locker, in front of the table, behind the chair), change the direction of movement (right, left) and Remember the names of the days of the week, as well as their sequence.
Organization of work of preschool children in the cognitive cycle
The work begins with the repetition of what is passed in the middle group, the level of mathematical representations is revealed. For this purpose, about 5 sessions are devoted, on which everything that children have learned earlier is fixed, - representations about the form, quantity and values, counting within 10.
The duration of studies in the older group is practically unchanged, but the amount of knowledge transferred and the pace of work increase. But the activity of children is facilitated by the fact that it is conducted in the form of a game, which is very attractive to the child.
The pre-school education program provides for the fact that the senior group of the DOW classes always begins with a repetition, which makes it possible to introduce new knowledge into the system of previously acquired knowledge. It takes place in the form of game exercises, which stimulates the interest of the child. With them begin and fixing activities.
Gaming exercises in the structure of the lesson. What is their meaning?
You can offer children such an exercise as "Find the Dunce's Mistake". It will not only create the right mood, but will also stimulate the display of ingenuity and ingenuity, will allow focusing attention and activating thinking.
Such exercises well stimulate wit and develop logical thinking. Also a wide application was found in combined exercises, which allow solving simultaneously 2 or 3 tasks. And the work at this time can go over the material that is contained in different sections of the program.
The benefits that rhythmic activity brings to children
In addition to classes in preparation for literacy, reading and the initial mathematical concepts, the program of pre-school institutions provides for the development of musical and rhythmic abilities in children. For this, many DOW have included rhythmic training.
Experience shows that such classes in the kindergarten in the older group not only bring joy to the child and amuse him, but also have many other positive factors. Among them are the following:
- They instill love for dancing and music and bring up musical taste.
- Shy children due to them can be liberated, and active people get a good physical discharge.
- All children begin to share such concepts as the style of music, its rhythm and pace.
- Significantly improves both the physical form of the child and the coordination of movements.
- Children have the opportunity to learn how to respond to any situation adequately, to control their mental state and correctly express emotions.
All this led to the fact that the rhythmic work in the preschool education system was given great attention.
Since mothers and dads always want to know what their child is doing in the kindergarten and what is studying there, especially if there are classes in the institution's program that are not part of the compulsory preschool program, the open kindergarten rhythmic activity in the senior group most often seeks to be held simultaneously with Parental meeting.
This is done in order to have the opportunity to demonstrate to parents the skills and abilities that their children have received, as well as the style of conducting lessons.
Instruction for the tutor to conduct classes
In order for classes in the group of older preschool children to be effective and interesting for children, the teacher should follow certain rules.
- Classes in the kindergarten in the senior group provide for the presentation of a new, rather complex material in the form of a game. This well develops visual memory and imaginative thinking. In addition, the competition element present in them encourages the children to better master the knowledge.
- It is enough time to retrace the repetition. But it is not necessary to do this during the lesson, you can conduct several repetitive classes at the beginning of the month.
- In order not to lose the attention of children, you need to monitor the change in their activities. Different types of exercises, games, songs, riddles and dances should be intertwined.
And remember that adults should communicate with kids only in a friendly way. In any case, you can not use an orderly tone in class, and even more so to criticize a child.