The revolutionary upsurge of the working class and the peasantry frightened the reactionary forces of the Chinese bourgeoisie and landowners, their representatives in a united front and in the Kuomintang. The first attempt to curb the national liberation revolution was the revolution of Chiang Kai-shek in Guangzhou on March 20, 1926. Chiang Kai-shek concentrated in his hands the decisive levers of the party (the chairman of the Kuomintang CEC) and the military (the commander-in-chief of the National Revolutionary Army) government in the Guangzhou government. The last July 1, 1926, issued a manifesto on the Northern campaign against the pro-Japanese clique of militarist Zhang Zuolin and pro-Anglo-American, Wu Peifu and Sun Chuangfang.
The Northern Expedition was in essence a form of civil war between the revolutionary forces of Southern China and the reactionary forces of North China. Under the slogans of the national unification of China, supported by the CCP, in July-October 1926 the National Revolutionary Army defeated Wu Peifu's troops in the provinces of Hunan and Hubei. This made it possible for the left-wing Moldovan national government to move from Guangzhou to Wuhan, and in November 1926-March 1927, to defeat the militarist Sun Chuangfang and occupy the most important centers of the country - Nanchang, Nanjing, Shanghai. The active role in the Northern campaign was played by the Chinese Communists, as well as by the Soviet military advisers, in the capacity of commanders, commissars and soldiers, in particular, the chief military adviser V.K Blucher, who was developing the plan for the campaign. M. Borodin was a political adviser of the Guomindang revolutionary government. China: The Northern Approach ....
The northern campaign intensified the workers 'and peasants' movement in China. The main center of the revolutionary struggle was the worker Shanghai. The scope of the revolutionary struggle created a serious threat to the interests of the imperialist powers in China. In an attempt to paralyze it with interventionist action, more than 170 military vessels of Britain, the USA, France and Japan cruised near the coast of East China and along the river. Yangtze, and on March 24, the combination of warships of England and the United States fired upon Nanking.
As the mass workers 'and peasants' movement grew, which indicated the aggravation of the contradictions between the working people of the city and the countryside, on the one hand, the bourgeoisie and the landowners, on the other, the inevitable withdrawal of the bourgeoisie from the united front took place and its transition to the side of the counter-revolution. The first step along this path was the formation of a right-Mindan political center headed by Chiang Kai-shek in Nanchang, which opposed itself to the revolutionary center of the Kuomintang leftists in Wuhan. The counter-revolutionary coup of Chiang Kai-shek on April 12, 1927 in Shanghai, followed by similar upheavals in other parts of China, marked a complete rupture of the Right Kuomintang with a united front. On April 18, in Nanjing, a government headed by Chiang Kai-shek was formed from the Kuomintang's Right. The gradual departure of the Kuomintang from the revolutionary democratic principles of Sun Yatsen was accompanied by the transformation of the party from a bloc of the liberal bourgeoisie, petty bourgeoisie, intellectuals and workers into a bloc of landlords and the bourgeoisie.
China: The Northern Approach