Approximately in the V century BC. On the territory of Azerbaijan and Southern Dagestan, a state was formed under the name of Caucasian Albania. This country was inhabited by the ancestors of the current Dagestan Lezgian-speaking peoples. It should be noted that the final formation of the geographical boundaries of Dagestan occurred only in the 60s of the 20th century, during the Soviet period. Then, the northern regions of Dagestan were annexed, therefore, not all the peoples inhabiting Dagestan currently belong to the pureblooded descendants of the inhabitants of Caucasian Albania.
Initially, the country was formed as a confederation of twenty-six kingdoms, but in the 12th century it disintegrated into small principalities and existed in this form until the 17th century AD until it entered the Russian Empire. Arab historical sources claim that the last political formation, which continued the traditions of ancient Caucasian Albania, was present-day Azerbaijan (in ancient times - the historical region of Arran).
After Derbent, the capital of Caucasian Albania was the city of Kabala (Kabalaki), whose ruins have been preserved to the present day in the territory of Azerbaijan. After the Azerbaijan Republic switched to the Latin alphabet, the Russian letter "K" was replaced by the Latin "Q", therefore, the ancient capital of the Lezghins was called not Kabala, but Gabala (Gabala radar rented the RF).
Being at the junction of civilizations, migration and caravan routes, the Caucasian Albania, In fact, constantly had to defend its independence. Albania fought against the Romans (the legendary campaigns of Pompey and Crassus to the Caucasus), with Sassanid Iran, Huns, Arabs, Khazars and Turkic tribes, who, nevertheless, succeeded in completely destroying the Caucasian Albania as a state.
Hard times survived the Lezghian people and in the 50-60's of the twentieth century. The ruling "elite" of Dagestan, on the eve of the all-union population census, shared them, promising each nation the status of "sovereignty." But from this "sovereignty" the Lezghian peoples remained only in the losers; They succeeded in obtaining the promised alphabets only forty years later, after the collapse of the USSR. All these years they remained unwritten; Instead of native Lezgin, were forced to use a new "native" language - Russian.