Cacti: varieties, their photos and description. The main types of cacti

Flowers in the house are kept by many. However, usually people prefer to decorate their windowsills with deciduous plants - they think that they are more decorative. Say, trunks and spines are not very aesthetic. By this attitude, the people, you can say, offend cacti - their varieties are very diverse. There are species completely not prickly, there are plants of unusual, exotic forms, there are even with the formations reminding leaves. So picking cacti, whose varieties will satisfy you aesthetically - is by no means a problem. Moreover, most of the bred indoor species are very beautiful and lush blossoms.

General principles of content

The persistent misconception that these plants do not need any care, results in their death as a result and gives rise to the same dislike of flowers as cacti. So that you do not suffer a similar disappointment, remember that these plants come from different climatic zones. Accordingly, they need to create conditions close to the usual ones. There are two types of cacti:

  1. Deserted . They need a very bright light (southern windows are ideal) and limited watering. In winter, they do without water at all - it was thanks to such species that people developed common "cactus" stereotypes. Desert cacti - varieties with the names Echinopsis, Cereus, Echinocerus, Espola, Apococactus, Chamecereus, Echinocactus, Astrophytum Capricorn, Opuntia, Notoktus - those that are most often found in lovers of thorny plants;
  2. Forest . And their homeland - by no means groves of the middle band, and moist tropical forests. They are not accustomed to bright lighting, they will be more comfortable on the northern and eastern window sills. From direct rays such cacti should be protected, watered often, though not generously, and even in winter - albeit more meager. This type belongs to the Decembrist (zigokaktus), ripsalidopsis and epiphyllum.

If you understand what variety your new pet belongs to, it will delight you for a long time with its existence - and flowering!

The most popular species

The best of all plants of this genus is unanimously recognized as the cactus epiphyllum. One of its main strengths is endurance. The second advantage for many is the leafiness of the forms - thanks to it the plant looks more magnificent. And the third advantage is a very beautiful bloom. And the flowers on it can be very different shades, although most often there are dense red, pure white and red-violet.

However, to feel all the charms of finding an epiphyllum in your home, you need to provide him with the appropriate conditions. As already mentioned, it refers to forest cacti and prefers to dwell on the eastern or western windows - the southern will have to be puzzled by its shading. In the summer, you can "walk" on the balcony or in the garden, but do not forget to put the pot in the shade. In spring, when new shoots intensively grow, and buds are blossoming on former ones, watering should be regular; But between them the land must dry up. Since June, the amount of water is gradually decreasing, and by the winter it remains in a volume sufficient for moistening. In addition, in summer, the epiphyllum responds very well to spraying. Since the beginning of flowering (and it first occurs in the 3-4 years of life) plants require increased attention. While the blooming does not end, flowers of cactus can not only be transplanted, but also transferred to another place and even rotated. Adult plants are moved to a new container only if necessary - a close pot stimulates bud formation.

To cacti flowers

Buying a new plant, the future owner first of all expects to see beautiful flowers. Cacti, however, often deceive these expectations. You are unlikely to want to sell an adult plant (or you will ask for such money ...), so first you have to wait until the newcomer "ripens" to the right age. The second factor that will contribute to the appearance of buds - the maximum approximation to the conditions of life of cactus in his homeland. The third one we have already mentioned is a small pot. And the fourth: providing the plant with proper summer care and the required degree of winter dormancy. Then, at the time of flowering, fresh growth will appear, and last year's shoots will grow flowers.

Changing of the living place

Transplantation of cacti is a very important and somewhat different process from the movement of other plants. First of all - the size of the pot. In the case of relatively persistent species (Cereus, Myrtillocactus, Opuntia), the advice to take a container a couple of centimeters wider in diameter is fair. However, the lophophore or astrophytum grows slowly and is prone to rot. Their weak root system will not have time to "process" the volume of incoming water. As a result, cacti can die. They are transplanted into a pot, bigger perhaps a centimeter. If the roots of the plant are superficial, one must take a short but wide pot.

The frequency of transplantation depends on the age of the cactus. While he is young and growing fast, capacity changes annually. In adults this procedure is carried out only if the pot is clearly small; For globular cacti a reliable feature is the achievement of their diameter in the size of the pot.

Rules for moving

The transplantation of cacti is complicated by two factors: their prickiness (hence, increased traumatic danger) and fragility - in the strict sense they do not have a trunk, and the bark can not protect them from breaking. With the first problem to cope easier: the plant turns into newspapers or soft lint-free cloth (hooked on threads, cacti can break spines) and gently falls out of the pot. Before transplanting it should not be watered: the dried up soil is easier to remove. The greatest caution can only defeat fragility. The most difficult to move cacti, whose varieties are tall. Then you need an assistant who will hold the plant during manipulation.

All colors of the rainbow

Often, almost professional fans are found in the collection of purple, blue or red cacti. Many observers aah and admire, thinking that this is some rare species. It happened that an inexperienced florist was buying such colorful plants - and was soon discouraged, and even angry, revealing a very ordinary kind of purchase soon. However, the attentive person will pay attention to the fact that before him are cacti, the varieties of which he saw and in the usual form, with white thorns. The secret is very simple: when transplanting or planting children, the soil mixes with food coloring. When watering it dissolves, penetrates into the cactus and stains its spines in the conceived color. When the dye is washed, the plant will take on a natural appearance. This "coloring" of harm does not bring cactus (if it is used food color, and not, say, ink or ink). Care for the plant in the correction does not need - because its variety has not changed because of the freak of the owner.

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