The waters of the Atlantic stretch from the northernmost latitudes, pass through the equator and reach the shores of Antarctica. In each of these zones, its current is formed, which largely affects the weather conditions and the water temperature. The climatic zones of the Atlantic Ocean are both Arctic, and equatorial, and the tropics ... Of course, it is impossible to compare them with terrestrial climate of the same name, the difference is too great. Therefore, in order to properly identify them, we need a brief description of the Atlantic Ocean, its position and features.
So, the Atlantic Ocean is the second largest water reservoir on the planet. Its area is more than 91 million square kilometers, and the volume is 330 million cubic kilometers. The greatest depth of the ocean is 8742 meters, it is in the area of the Puerto Rico trench. The water salinity is 36 percent, which makes it the salt water body in the world. Another characteristic of the Atlantic Ocean is its rugged coastline. On the shores of all the continents that are washed by the waters of the Atlantic, there are seas, bays and straits that are part of it. In general, they account for about 16% of the total water volume.
The climatic zones of the Atlantic Ocean are determined by its geographical location. The reservoir extends from the very north of the planet, that is, from the islands of Greenland and Iceland, to the very south - to Antarctica. In the west, it borders the coasts of North and South America, and in the east - with Europe and Africa. In the Atlantic Ocean there are many islands of mainly volcanic origin. Many of them are part of the seas that belong to the ocean. Among these are the Balearic, Malta (Mediterranean Sea), the Antilles Large and Small (the Caribbean Sea). On the expanses of the ocean itself are the Canary Islands, Cape Verde (Cape Verde Islands), the Sandwich Islands, the Faroe Islands and many others. All of them are of volcanic origin, and the temperature in the coastal waters depends on which climatic zones of the Atlantic Ocean they are surrounded.
The main features of the Atlantic Ocean are that the climatic zones that are located on its water area are identical both in the north and in the south, but the temperature of the air in these and other zones, as well as the humidity, are very different from each other. As for the Northern Hemisphere, the climate here is relatively warm. The upper belts are arctic glaciers, where the annual temperature fluctuations are about 25 degrees. In winter, the thermometer drops to a level of 25-30 degrees below zero, in summer it rises to + 5-10. The hottest month in the north-west Atlantic is August, the coldest month is February. Above the northern region a low pressure zone is formed - the Icelandic minimum. The amount of precipitation here is about 250 mm. In the temperate latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, the temperature fluctuations are already 10 degrees. Increases the amount of precipitation up to 1000 mm per year. Tropics are called the Azores maximum due to increased pressure. Precipitation occurs here mainly in winter, and in the summer the eastern trade winds blow, which carry dry air. In general, the temperature in the Northern Hemisphere of the Atlantic is much higher than in the South.
The polar climatic zones of the Atlantic Ocean are Arctic in the north and Antarctic in the south, and the latter we are now considering. Here, maximum annual temperature fluctuations are observed - up to 30 degrees. In winter, there are terrible frosts - up to -40 Celsius and more, and in summer the air hardly warms up to +1. The coldest month here is August, and the hottest month is February. In the temperate zone, the temperature fluctuations are 15 degrees. In summer it is quite warm here - up to +20, and in winter the column of the thermometer drops to -10. The average amount of precipitation reaches 1500 mm per year. A big difference can be traced between the northern and southern tropics. If the climate is predominantly dry above the equator, then in the south, due to the fact that the ocean expands, a large cloudiness forms. The amount of precipitation here is 1500-2000 mm per year. The temperature fluctuations are more significant than one degree. In some areas, they are 3-4 degrees.
The waters of the Atlantic cross the equator zone - this is their geography. The Atlantic Ocean in this region is heated to a maximum, and, most importantly, it is the zone of the most abundant precipitation and fog. During the year, the temperature of the air and the surface of the water does not change here. Precipitation falls mainly in winter, but on the whole the rains go evenly in each season. Their number is 3000 mm per year. Over the equator in the waters of the Atlantic, fogs are formed mainly in summer. Most of them go to the southern hemisphere, to the rise of La Plata in Argentina. Those that form closer to the northeast are called sand fogs. They are formed because of the strong winds that blow from the Sahara.