What could be worse than war, when hundreds of thousands of people perish for the interests of politicians and the powers that be. And the more terrible are the protracted military conflicts, during which people get used to living in conditions when death can overtake them at any moment, and human life has no value. This was exactly what the Hundred Years War was, the reasons, stages, results and biographies of the characters of which deserve careful study.
Before studying, what were the results of the Hundred Years War, you should understand its prerequisites. It all started with the fact that the sons of the French King Philip the Fourth did not leave behind the heirs of the male. At the same time, the native grandson of the monarch from Isabella's daughter - the English King Edward the Third, who came to the throne of England in 1328 at the age of 16, was alive. However, he could not claim the throne of France, according to the Salic law. Thus, in France the dynasty of Valois in the person of Philip the Sixth, who was the nephew of Philip the Fourth, was established, and Edward the Third in 1331 was forced to bring him a vassal oath for Gascony - the French province, considered the personal property of the English monarchs.
The beginning and the first stage of the war (1337-1360)
Six years after the events described, Edward III decided to fight for the throne of his grandfather and sent a challenge to Philip the Sixth. Thus began the Hundred Years War, the causes and results of which are of great interest to those who study the history of Europe. After the war was declared, the British launched an offensive against Picardy, in which they were supported by the inhabitants of Flanders and the feudal lords of the southwestern counties of France.
In the first years after the beginning of the armed conflict, the fighting proceeded with varying success, until in 1340 there was a sea battle in Sleis. As a result of the victory of the English, the English Channel was under their control and remained so until the end of the war. Thus, in the summer of 1346 nothing could prevent the troops of Edward the Third from crossing the strait and seizing the city of Caen. From there the army of the British followed to Crecy, where on August 26 the famous battle ended, which ended with their triumph, and in 1347 they captured the city of Calais. In parallel with these events, hostilities unfolded in Scotland. However, the fortune continued to smile at Edward III, who defeated the army of this kingdom at the Battle of Neville's Cross, and eliminated the threat of war on two fronts.
The pandemic of the plague and the conclusion of peace in Brétigny
In 1346-1351 Europe visited the "Black Death". This pandemic of the plague has claimed so many lives that there could be no question of continuing hostilities. The only vivid event of this period, glorified in ballads, was the Battle of Thirty, when English and French knights with squires arranged a mass duel, followed by several hundred peasants. After the end of the pest, England again began military operations, which was mainly led by the Black Prince - the eldest son of Edward III. In 1356, he won the battle of Poitiers and captured the French King John II. Later, in 1360, the Dauphin of France, who was to become King Charles the Fifth, signed the so-called Peace in Brétigny on very unfavorable conditions for himself.
Thus, the results of the Hundred Years War at its first stage were as follows:
- France was completely demoralized;
- England acquired half of Brittany, Aquitaine, Poitiers, Calais and almost half of the enemy's vassal possessions; John the Second lost power over the third territory of his country;
- Edward the Third undertook in his own name and on behalf of his descendants no longer claim the throne of his grandfather;
- The second son of John the Second - Louis of Anjou - was sent to London as a hostage in exchange for the return of his father to France.
Peace period from 1360 to 1369 years
After the cessation of hostilities, the peoples of the countries involved in the conflict received a respite, which lasted 9 years. During this time, Louis Anjousky fled from England, and his father, as a knight loyal to his word, went into a voluntary captivity, where he died. After his death, Charles Fifth ascended to the throne of France, who in 1369 unfairly accused the British of violating the peace treaty and resumed military operations against them.
Usually those who study the course and outcome of the Hundred Years War characterize the time interval between 1369 and 1396 as a series of constant battles, in which, besides the main participants, the kingdoms of Castile, Portugal and Scotland were also involved. During this period, the following important events occurred:
- In 1370 in Castile with the help of the French came to power Enrique II, who became their faithful ally;
- Two years later the city of Poitiers was liberated;
- In 1372, at the battle of La Rochelle, the French-Castilian united fleet defeated the British squadron;
- 4 years later the Black Prince died;
- Edward the Third died in 1377, and Richard II, minor, ascended the throne of England;
- From 1392, the King of France began to show signs of insanity;
- Four years later a truce was concluded, caused by extreme exhaustion of the opponents.
The truce (1396-1415)
When the madness of King Charles Six became evident to everyone, internecine strife broke out in the country, in which the Armagnac party won. Nor was the situation better in England, which entered a new war with Scotland, which, moreover, had to subdue the rebellious Ireland and Wales. In addition, they overthrew Richard the Second, and on the throne reigned Henry the Fourth, and then his son. Thus, until 1415, both countries were unable to continue the war and were in a state of armed truce.
The third stage (1415-1428)
Those who investigate the course and consequences of the Hundred Years War, usually its most interesting event, is the emergence of such a historical phenomenon as a woman warrior who could lead the army of knights-feudal lords. It is about Jeanne d'Arc, born in 1412, the formation of the personality of which was greatly influenced by the events that occurred in 1415-1428. Historical science considers this period the third stage of the Hundred Years' War and as key points out the following events:
- The Battle of Agincourt in 1415, in which Henry the Fifth defeated;
- The signing of the treaty in Troyes, according to which the distraught King Karl Six declared his heir to the King of England;
- The capture of the English by Paris in 1421;
- The death of Henry the Fifth and the announcement of his one-year-old son by the King of England and France;
- The defeat of the former Dauphin Karl, whom much of the French considered a legitimate king, at the Battle of Kravan;
- The siege by the English of Orleans, which began in 1428, during which the world first learned the name of Joan of Arc.
The end of the war (1428-1453)
The city of Orleans was of great strategic importance. If the British could capture it, the answer to the question "what are the results of the Hundred Years War" would be completely different, and the French could even lose their independence. Fortunately for this country, she was sent a girl who called herself Jeanne the Virgin. She arrived at Dauphin Karl in March 1429 and announced that the Lord had commanded her to lead the French army and lift the siege of Orleans. After a series of interrogations and tests, Carl believed her and appointed the commander-in-chief of his troops. As a result, on May 8, Orleans was rescued, on June 18, the army of Jeanne defeated the British forces at the Battle of Pate, and on June 29, at the insistence of the Orléans virgin, the Dauphin's "Bloodless Campaign" began in Reims. There he was crowned as Karl the Seventh, but soon after that he stopped listening to the advice of the warrior.
A few years later Jeanne was taken prisoner to the Burgundians, who transferred the girl to the British, and they executed her, accusing her of heretics and idolatry. However, the results of the Hundred Years War were already predetermined, and even the death of the Orleans virgin could not prevent the liberation of France. The last battle in this war was the battle of Castiglione in 1453, when the British lost Gascony, which they owned for more than 250 years.
Results of the Hundred Years' War (1337-1453)
As a result of this protracted interdynamic armed conflict, England lost all its continental territories in France, retaining only the port of Calais. In addition, in response to a question about what the results of the Hundred Years War are, military historians respond that the methods of warfare have changed dramatically as a result, and new types of weapons have been created.
Consequences of the Hundred Years' War
The echoes of this armed conflict predetermined relations between Britain and France for centuries to come. In particular, until 1801, the British, and then the British monarchs, held the title of kings of France, which in no way contributed to the establishment of friendly ties.
Now you know when the Hundred Years War was, the reasons, the course, the results and the motives of the main characters of which have been studied by many historians for almost 6 centuries.