Self improvementMotivation

Vrooma expectation theory and motivation model. Victor Vroom and his theory

The theory of expectations of Victor Vroom says: the level of motivation of employees of this or that company to work depends on their ideas about their own abilities to accomplish the tasks assigned to them and the reality of achieving the goals. This American researcher made an invaluable contribution to the development of the motivational theory of expectations. According to her postulates, the stimulating effect is produced not by the needs of individuals themselves, but by the thought process, in which an assessment of the reality of the attainment of the goals set and the reward for it is taking place.

Goal calculation

The theory of Vroom expectation includes the assertion that the efforts made by a person are directly dependent on the realization that what is desired can really be achieved. As a classic example, in most cases the following is stated: the student of the university is being prepared for the exam. Suppose this is the last test. The assessments are excellent for the previous exams, so if this one is given to the highest score, the student will be awarded a higher stipend for the whole next semester. The motivation of this individual is influenced by the following:

- self-confidence, the realization that the exam can really be passed on "excellent", like all the previous ones;

- the desire to have more money.

According to the theory of expectations of V. Vroom, the student would not have had an incentive for conscientious exam preparation in the absence of faith in himself and the desire to receive a high stipend.


Vroom's expectation theory deals with two types of assumptions of the individual related to the effectiveness of his activity:

  • The first type is related to the following question: "Are the efforts being made possible to ensure a decent level of implementation of work assignments?" In order to meet expectations, a person must have the appropriate abilities, experience in a similar or similar field, as well as the necessary tools, equipment and capabilities to perform the task. In the above example with a student, the expectation of this type is usually very large, if he is really sure that careful preparation will help get the highest score. If the individual believes that he does not have both the capabilities and the ability to work profoundly with the teaching material, he will, with a low degree of probability, strive for a high evaluation of his knowledge.
  • To the second type of expectations, as Vroom's theory of motivation points out, is this question: "Will effective activity achieve the desired result?" For example, a person wanted to have some benefit related to his work activity. To get the desired reward, he should go to a certain level of execution of tasks. If the desire is great, the individual will have the strongest motivation for hard work. Conversely, if you are confident that work from morning to night will not allow you to receive benefits, the incentive will be minimal.

In addition, Victor Vroom noted that, depending on the degree of motivation, there is an attractiveness and value for the individual of the expected results.


Expectations are in most cases considered as an assessment of a particular person's probability of occurrence of a particular event. Let's give an example: the overwhelming majority of students are sure that after graduating from high school they will be able to find a decent job, and if at the same time they work hard, the advancement on the career ladder will not keep you waiting.

Many modern procedural teachings on motivation, the theory of expecting Vroom, including, consider motivation as a process of independent choice management. It is asserted that each individual is in a continuous state of motivation.

Boss for a note

The theory of expectation says: in order to become a successful leader, it is required to show to subordinates that all their efforts, duly directed at realizing the tasks of the organization, will lead to the speedy achievement of their own goals.

According to the study, the employees carry out the most productive activities if they have the confidence that their hopes will be met in three directions:

- The ratio of "costs - results" ("Z - R"). This stage represents the balance between the effort expended and the result of labor.

- "Result is reward" ("R - B"). Such a calculation is aimed at a certain reward or promotion as a consequence of the achieved level of results.

- The third factor determining the motivation in the theory of expectation is the value of the reward or reward received.

Employee Motivation

Let's consider the three directions mentioned above in more detail. With regard to the first "cost-result" relationship, Vroom's expectation theory provides the following explanation: when a person asks about the extent to which he can expect that his own efforts will lead to quantitative and qualitative results required by the leader, the answer is Time and is in the plane of this relationship, "З - Р".

The second "R - B" motivator is activated when the employee fully appreciates the reality that he will be able to achieve the goal. In this case, there is a very specific question: "If I do a good job, what will I receive a reward, will it meet my expectations?". Uncertainty can arise when the employee has to rely on others in the process of distributing the promised rewards. When determining the level of confidence of a subordinate that the head really will pay the bonus, several factors are important. First, trust is higher when promises of superiors are not vague, but quite specific. Secondly, a huge role is played by the realization that the immediate leader is endowed with the appropriate powers to ensure remuneration.

Value of promotion

The theory of expectations of Victor Vroom includes the postulate that even if employees are confident in their own abilities and will receive the desired bonus, they will still have one more question. It sounds like this: "If I get the desired bonus, will it be of value to me, will it help me satisfy basic needs?". According to the study, the answer to this question is the way to measure the value of the reward.

An Important Moment

The value of remuneration is called one of the main elements of the theory of expectations. However, unfortunately, not all managers take it into account. The most common difficulty associated with the process of determining the value of promotion is due to the fact that a person does not always pay enough attention and time to a detailed assessment of their own needs. Moreover, since financial resources do allow you to acquire many benefits, the subordinates are often in error, being sure that money is in fact the best reward. Subsequently, such beliefs bring nothing but frustration and dissatisfaction. People who try to get satisfaction from their labor only in the form of money often lack self-esteem and feel the lack of demand for intelligence, abilities and skills.


To determine the general level of the individual's needs, the satisfaction of which will determine his behavior, Maslow applied the term "domination". However, how can a manager determine the actual remuneration at the moment for a particular subordinate? Here the theory of expectations of V. Vroom comes to the rescue. The term "valence" is used to determine the level of preference for a particular promotion. According to Vroom, this concept reflects a measure of priority or value. The maximum positive valence is 1.00, the minimum value is -1.00. And although this concept seems rather vague, it allows people to compare their queries. Thanks to general theoretical postulates, a model of Vroom motivation appeared. It can be represented as follows: waiting for "cost-results" x expectation "results-reward" x valence (value of reward) = motivation.

How to optimize the activities of employees?

- Ensure a systematic comparison of needs with remuneration.

- Help the process of understanding the connection between effort, result, promotion and satisfaction of needs. Confidence of subordinates will increase if they see that the manager pays much attention to this relationship.

- Identify the most effective incentives for each subordinate.

- Demonstrate your own ability to effectively guide and achieve your goals.


Above, the theory of Vroom's expectation was discussed, the factors influencing the behavior of subordinates are briefly described, and certain features of the behavior of a successful leader are revealed.

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