Vasodilator - what is it? Description of pharmacological group

Vasodilation is the process of relaxing the muscular layer of the vascular wall. The drug, which has a similar mechanism of action and is used in the therapy of heart failure and hypertension, is called the appropriate term - a vasodilator. What this is and what means are related to the vasodilators, we will consider further.

General information

Reduction of cardiac output, developing with heart failure, activates the adrenergic nervous and renin-angiotensin system, resulting in the release of angiotensin II and norepinephrine. Active substances bind to receptors, which leads to narrowing of the vessels.

The first stage of heart failure requires a similar mechanism, because it allows you to maintain the required level of blood pressure. However, prolonged narrowing of the veins leads to the development of stagnant processes in the lungs and a decrease in cardiac output.

Vasodilators - preparations (the list of names can be found in the specialized medical and pharmacological literature, in addition, below we list the most popular means of this group), used for vasodilation. The result is the development of antihypertensive action. Another important indication for the appointment of such medicines is a heart cough. How can vasodilators help with this condition? Preparations for cardiac cough are used to dilate coronary vessels.

Classification of drugs

Depending on which parts of the vascular bed the active substances affect, three groups of vasodilators are distinguished:

  1. Arterial:
    • "Hydralazine";
    • Calcium antagonists.
  2. Venous:
  • Nitrates;
  • Sydnoniminy.
  • Mixed type:
    • Angiotensin II receptor blockers ;
    • ACE inhibitors;
    • Alpha1-adrenoblockers;
    • Sodium nitroprusside.
  • Venous vasodilator preparations

    The venous vasodilator - what is it? This drug, causing a decrease in the tone of the venous vascular wall. Venules respond to lower concentrations of active substances than arteries. In such cases, nitrates are used that promote the relaxation of large veins, increase the volume of the bloodstream, reduce the load on the heart, reduce the need for myocardium in oxygen.

    The name of the venous vasodilator The route of administration Duration of action Reception scheme

    Sublingually (under the tongue).





    From 30 minutes to 1 day, depending on the form of administration

    Sublingually - as needed.

    The remaining forms - up to 3 times a day.

    Plaster - 1 time per day.

    "Isosorbide mononitrate"



    10 to 24 hours, depending on the form of administration 1-2 times a day
    "Pentaerythritol tetranitrate" Inside Until 10 o'clock 3 times a day
    "Isosorbide dinitrate"



    Aerosol (inside or cutaneous).

    Intravenously drip.


    1 to 6 hours depending on the form of administration

    Sublingual and oral aerosol - as needed.

    The remaining forms are 1-4 times a day.

    "Molsidomin" Inside Up to 6 hours 2-3 times a day

    Venous vasodilators are drugs (names, doses are described in the table), which are considered the safest of all antianginal drugs. Side effects occur rarely and for a short time.

    Arterial vasodilator preparations

    Arterial vasodilator - what is it? This medication, the active substance of which helps to relax the muscle tissue of the arterial wall.

    For example, "Hydralazine" is a drug that increases the heart rate, which increases blood flow in the kidneys and brain, which arises as a reflex response to the removal of vascular spasm. Used for various forms of hypertension, hypertensive crisis in combination with other drugs.

    Side effects of "Hydralazine":

    • Cephalgia;
    • Redness of the face;
    • The appearance of edema;
    • Worsening of manifestations of angina pectoris;
    • A condition similar to systemic lupus erythematosus.

    "Diazoxide" is a vasodilator, which is used exclusively for relief of the hypertensive crisis. Introduced intravenously, lowers blood pressure after only 2-3 minutes. In addition, the product causes a strong relaxation of the uterus and water retention in the body.

    Calcium antagonists are a group of arterial vasodilators, including the following:

    1. "Nifedipine" - eliminates spasm of the coronary vessels, reduces blood pressure, reduces the work of the heart muscle.
    2. "Verapamil" - reduces myocardial contractility, restores heart rhythm and blood pressure.

    Preparations of mixed type

    Mixed vasodilator - what is it? This drug, the active substance of which relieves spasm of the arteries and veins. One of the most effective is sodium nitroprusside. By the mechanism of action, it is similar to nitrates. Intravenous administration of the drug causes a rapid and strong effect, but it is short-lived.

    The vasodilator is used in case of acute and chronic heart failure, hypertensive state against a background of myocardial infarction, encephalopathy against a background of hypertonic manifestations. The introduction of sodium nitroprusside can cause dizziness, headache, loss of consciousness, nausea, tachycardia.

    ACE inhibitors are a group of agents that block the formation of the angiotensin-converting enzyme, as a result of which angiotensin II is not produced. In parallel, there is an intensification of the effect of diuretics. Classification of ACE inhibitors is based on their chemical structure:

    1. Containing sulfhydryl group:
      • "Captopril".
      • "Zephenopril".
      • "Benazepril".
    2. Containing carboxyl group:
      • Lizinopril.
      • "Enalapril".
      • "Spirapril".
    3. Containing the phosphinyl group:
      • "Fosinopril".

    The drugs have advantages in asymptomatic left ventricular dysfunction, atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries, metabolic syndrome, microalbuminuria, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction in history, nephropathy, not associated with diabetes.

    Children's vasodilators

    Vasodilators-drugs for children are used exclusively for severe pathologies. As a rule, miotropic agents ("Dibazol", "Papaverin") and ganglion blockers ("Benzohexonium") are used.

    Children receive vasodilating drugs for neurological treatment. The funds are aimed at improving cerebral circulation, are used in conditions of "white" hyperthermia and hydrocephalus.

    Each of the medicines is selected individually, it depends on the patient's condition, the severity of the disorders, the form and course of the disease. Self-categorically is not recommended.

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