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Types of jacks and their characteristics

A jack is a mechanism, the main function of which is lifting and fixing loads at a height. In the role of distinguishing this device from other lifting mechanisms by the type of cranes and winches, it is possible to distinguish the possibility of placing the equipment from below, and not from above, which eliminates the need to use auxiliary ropes, chains and structures.

Main types of jacks

Today there are several types of jacks, among them:

  • Screw;
  • Rack;
  • Hydraulic;
  • Pneumatic.

The first are used for repair work, when there is a need to install the load from above or below. A rotating heel or paw can be used. The carrying capacity of such devices usually does not exceed 15 tons. Aggregates consist of a cylinder, inside which is placed a few or one lifting screw. It can be extended or retracted, depending on the direction of rotation of the toothed nut.

Considering the types of jacks, photos of which are presented in the article, one should single out their main advantages. For example, the screw device has the greatest reliability in operation, which is explained by the fact that the load is strengthened by threading, and when lifting, the nut rotates idle. Important advantages can also be called stability, as well as strength, such mechanisms can work without additional supports.

Considering screw jacks, the types of this equipment you should study first. Among others it is necessary to distinguish combined lever-screw devices, which have an important advantage, expressed in low cost, impressive lifting height, low weight and compact size. We should also mention the drawbacks of this type of screw jacks, among which - poor stability, as well as a power handle that does not differ in ease of use.

More on lever-screw jacks

The main types of jacks for cars include lever-screw devices, which are considered to be the most functional and are used for lifting loads up to 1 ton. Among the advantages of light weight, high working speed and low starting altitude.

However, these designs can not boast impressive stiffness, as well as stability. If it is necessary to lift the load, the mass of which reaches 2 tons, then a rhombic version, in the set of which 4 levers, connected by means of hinges, should be preferred. They are arranged in the shape of a diamond, which gave the name of the device.

More about screw jacks

Car jacks, the types and purposes of which were described above, can be screwed, they, according to the type of effort, are divided into manual and equipped with electric drive. A mechanical version of such devices was invented 30 years ago, but to this day the mechanism has undergone almost no changes.

As the main structural element is the body and screw, which are made of steel. The main advantages of such units have been described above, but they have disadvantages, among them:

  • Large size;
  • Small area of support;
  • The possibility of using only when lifting cars equipped with lugs.

If we consider in more detail an insignificant area of support, we can distinguish a consequence, which is a low stability. That is why these kinds of mechanical jacks are additionally insured with logs, as well as all sorts of objects like the bricks that are put under the car.

Characteristics of rack jacks

These tools are widely used for assembly and dismantling, as well as repair and construction work. Among the main varieties of this equipment are gear and lever mechanisms. The latter are supplemented by a rocking lever that moves the rail. Instead of a drive lever in gear rack and pinion jacks, a gear is used, which is activated by means of a handle. To hold the load on the axis of one of the gears, a ratchet is provided.

In both versions of the jacks described, the main assembly is a load carrying rake with a cup. If the load has a low-lying support surface, then this will help just the rack jack, the lower end of the rail is bent at an angle of 90 °. Considering the types and types of jacks, you can note that an important feature of rack devices is the low location of the lifting platform. On sale, you can find options in which the distance to the floor is only 90 mm. Such equipment can have one-, two- or three-stage transmission. Each variety is used for lifting goods:

  • Up to 6 tons;
  • From 6 to 15 tons;
  • More than 15 tons, respectively.

Such devices can operate in a vertical or horizontal position. The devices are easy to maintain and simple to construct, maintainable, and also provide a high load capacity, which reaches 20 tons.

Characteristics of the hydraulic jack

Next is to consider a hydraulic jack, the types of which will be mentioned below. This equipment works at the expense of liquid, and the principle of operation is based on the plunger, which is moved by pressure with liquid. Such devices are characterized by low working force, heavy lifting capacity, high efficiency, compactness, smooth running and rigidity.

However, there are also disadvantages, expressed in an impressive lift height, which is greater than that of mechanical jacks. The height of the lowering in this case as precisely as possible will not be adjusted. In addition, such types of jacks can break, and breakdowns will be more serious than lifting mechanical devices. Carrying capacity in this case varies from 1 to 1000 tons, and among the main varieties can be identified:

  • Bottled;
  • Classical;
  • Rolling;
  • Rhombic;
  • Zasypnye;
  • Two-level.

Considering the types of hydraulic jacks, you will understand that a single-rod bottle type is easy to use, has a wide range of uses and allows you to efficiently perform work of arbitrarily high complexity.

Use such equipment can be for dismantling and installation in any industry by type of construction and engineering. The jack will be useful also at repair of railway cars, cars, wheel sets, in a role of power knots of pipe benders, pipe cutters and other equipment. These types of jacks should be transported with extreme caution, because the working fluid can simply flow out of the tank, so the device must be stored in an upright position.

Characteristics of pneumatic jacks

This type of equipment is used to lift and move cargo during repair, installation and rescue operations. Indispensable for such devices, when between the load and the support is a very small gap. The pneumatic version of the jacks is indispensable when the most exact installation is required. If the work is carried out on a marshy, uneven and loose ground, then the choice will be obvious.

These types of jacks are used for docking pipelines of impressive diameters, sometimes this parameter reaches 1200 mm. Such equipment has the appearance of a rubber-corded flat shell, which is made of reinforced fabric. It increases in height with the supply of compressed air. The source can be mobile or stationary compressors, compressed air cylinders, automobile pumps.

The main disadvantage of pneumatic jacks is impressive cost, which affects the expensive manufacturing technology, the complexity of the design, as well as small lots of industrial production. Considering such jacks, the types and design of which you should have studied before buying, it should be mentioned that such devices can be unsafe when the engine is muffled. As for the load capacity, it is determined by the pressure in the pneumatic drive.

Characteristics of rack-mounted jacks of mechanical type

Considering the types of jacks for cars, it is worthwhile to distinguish rack mechanical devices, in the design of which there are screws, capable of lifting goods up to 3 tons. Such designs have high rigidity and excellent stability, but among the flaws is a serious impressive weight and a small height of the lift.

Rolling jack and its main types

Considering the types of rolling jacks, it is necessary to distinguish portable, stationary and mobile devices. These mechanisms can have a different design, but the device is divided into rack, screw and hydraulic. The latter variety is considered the most popular and more known than the classic sub-prime.

Suitable devices for a private motorist, and for tire shops. However, for the operation of the equipment it is necessary to provide an even hard coating, which is required for moving. By type, these types of car jacks are a trolley that moves with wheels made of steel. Weigh a lot of construction, and the price is quite high. These jacks are not suitable for transport in a car. This is due to the fact that in conditions of the road you can not use the device, but the workshops sometimes can not do without such equipment.

In height, the rolling mechanisms are not so high, but they are stable, the last quality is provided by a platform that acts as a support. The construction includes a lifting device, a pump and a piston. All this allows the equipment to work with a load with an impressive weight. Using it, you can lift the car to replace the wheels. The device also has a shut-off valve, the main role of which is the fixation of the load at any height. On sale, you can find mechanisms with additional grippers that expand the capabilities of the jack. Experts advise to be able to distinguish between pseudo-hydraulic models and podkatnogo hydraulic equipment.

Features of using podkatnyh devices

If, after considering all types of jacks for cars, you have chosen podkatnoe equipment, then you should become more familiar with the features and rules of its use. If there is a need to lift that part of the car where the wheel is located, then the device must first be installed on a flat surface, otherwise it will not be possible to avoid unpleasant consequences. If the mechanism moves, the machine will break, and such a violation of the rules will lead to injuries.

It is possible to ask before starting work on which cargo the device is designed for. If the load is exceeded, the mechanism, like the car, may be damaged. For maintenance and repair of a car you can pick up a mechanism with a carrying capacity of 2 tons or less. If it is a question of more powerful transport, then it will be necessary to have podkatnoe equipment for 5 tons.

The vehicle intended for maintenance should be fixed. For the wheels in this case, use stop shoes. This fixation will prevent the body from shifting from its place. The mechanisms will only allow you to lift the car, however, while the machine is installed on them, repairs or other work can not be done. As soon as the transport can be lifted to the desired height, the mechanisms should be removed, for this, safety stands are used.


Before buying a particular type of jack, you need to know about the mass of your car. This will eliminate the possibility of purchasing a device with an incorrect load capacity. This parameter should be selected with a small margin.

It is necessary to remember that powerful mechanisms have more impressive sizes and weight, therefore for their transportation and storage some amount of free space is required. Experts increasingly often recommend buying domestic products, because, compared to foreign, they do not differ much in functionality, but they are much cheaper. Yes, and the service centers of imported devices will be difficult to find in your city, if you do not live in a metropolis. As practice shows, domestic jacks are more repairable, you can fix the problem when it occurs, without resorting to outside help.

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