HealthDiseases and Conditions

Thyroid hyperthyroidism: causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment

Hyperthyroidism of the thyroid gland, also referred to as hyperfunction, is characterized by the release in the excess amount of thyroid hormones for the body . The disease can occur both completely asymptomatic and with a variety of characteristic features. It all depends on the amount of excess hormones. If the surplus is small, then the clinical pathological process does not develop. In general, this syndrome is more typical for women.

Thyroid hyperthyroidism: causes

The emergence of hyperfunction associated with age-related changes, genetic predisposition and the amount in the body of iodine. The most common conditions for hyperthyroidism are: severe psychological trauma, hormonal failures during menopause, sexual dysfunction, pituitary adenoma, infectious diseases, iodine intake in large quantities, pregnancy.

Thyroid hyperthyroidism: the main symptoms

A characteristic sign of the development of the syndrome is excessive nervousness. A person constantly feels some kind of anxiety, becomes irritable, can cry at the slightest excuse. Some people can not concentrate on something, at night they suffer from insomnia. Sometimes the patient comes to a state of unnatural agitation and shows excessive activity. In other cases, depression occurs, and even such symptoms can occur, which occur with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia. Hyperthyroidism of the thyroid gland also affects metabolism. This manifests itself in a more frequent than usual defecation, often accompanied by diarrhea. The person's appetite rises, but at the same time he begins to lose weight. At the same time, weaken muscles, which leads to rapid fatigue and the inability to withstand great physical exertion. In addition, the cardiovascular system suffers, which is manifested in the increase in heart rate. The patient becomes difficult to tolerate the heat, he sweats heavily. The skin turns pink, becomes smooth and warm. Hair can break down and fall out, nails also become brittle, and sometimes even go away from the fingers. Hyperthyroidism of the thyroid gland also affects the reproductive system. Thus, in women, menstruation can be observed, and in men - a decrease in libido, a decrease in the quality of sperm, erectile dysfunction.

Hyperthyroidism: Diagnosis

To establish the correct diagnosis, the level of hormones in the blood is examined and ultrasound of the gland is performed. To check the functioning of the thyroid gland, scintigraphy can be performed, during which a radioactive isotope of iodine is introduced into the body in the form of a liquid or in a capsule.

Thyroid hyperthyroidism: treatment

Pharmacological therapy is carried out by the patient taking antithyroid drugs that slow down the synthesis of hormones. Medicines begin to act only after a few days, because the body must first absorb high concentrations of previously released hormones. In addition, treatment with radioiodine damaging the cells of the thyroid gland can be carried out, which leads to the cessation of hormone production. During pregnancy, this therapy is not used, since it carries a risk to the fetus. In some cases, surgery is performed, during which either a part of the gland is cut out, or all of it.

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