The Oder River (otherwise called Odra) crosses Western Europe. It flows through the Czech Republic, Poland, Germany, flows into the Baltic Sea. Its length is 912 kilometers. The largest tributaries are Welze, Tyva, Warta, Burd, Opava. Cities on the shores are Ostrava, Raciborz, Wroclaw, Opole, Szczecin, Kitz, Frankfurt-on-Oder, Schwedt. The Oder River is characterized by mixed feeding: snow and rain. In its waters there is a great variety of fish: carp, pike, catfish, trout, pike perch, eel, etc.
Oder River on the map
Oder originates in the Sudeten Mountains. Draining from them, the river further routes itself along the Central European Plain, the terraced valley of which is very wide, sometimes up to 10-20 km.
Passing the mouth of the Lusatian Nisa, the Oder expands immediately to 250 m and becomes full. On its way, many islets are formed. Shores are represented in the form of trees, which protect arable land from flooding. After 84 km from the beginning, the Oder River is divided into two branches (navigable - western). It flows into the Baltic Sea, namely to the Szczecin Gulf (it is called the lagoon).
Steep nature of the river
Throughout the Oder in spring there is always a high water here. Summer, autumn are characterized by torrential floods, winter - increased water content. In the harshest frosts, the river freezes.
Very often throughout history, severe floods created catastrophic situations. Many times, under the water, large areas of farmland completely disappeared, and settlements suffered. Every nationality living on the banks of this wayward river gave it its name. For the Germans it is the Oder, for the Czechs, for the Poles - Odra. This river - and Kashubian Buckets, and Luzhichskaya Vodra. Latin medieval names are Viadrus and Oder. At the heart of all the names the word "adro", that is, "water flow".
History of the river
Even in the life of the ancient Romans Oder played a huge role. It was a site of the Amber Route, from the shores of the Baltic, amber was delivered to the Mediterranean. This was an important trade route for the Germanic tribes.
In the Middle Ages, the development of trade contributed to the construction of many cities on the banks of the Oder, the river was an important European artery. Since the XIII century, to protect arable land, the first dams are built on it.
Already in the XVII century, the active construction of canals began, and the Oder River linked all important European arteries. The largest canal, the Oder-Spree, was built in 1887-1891, its length was almost one hundred kilometers.
Already in 1919, after the war, the Treaty of Versailles defined the borders of states and navigation on the Oder.
The Second World War
For the German army, the Oder River served as a strengthening, defensive line in 1939-1945. The waterway has become an important strategic site.
In 1945, during the Vistula-Oder operation, Soviet troops carried out the crossing of the Oder River. It was from here that a thorough offensive began on Berlin. As a result of the well-coordinated Berlin operation it was possible to defeat Hitler's Germany.
Prior to this, back in 1943, at the Tehran Conference, the anti-Hitler coalition defined the borders of the countries of Europe after the war. It was the Oder that marked the border between Poland and Germany.
Oder River in Germany
One of the important industrial centers of Germany is the city of Eisenhüttenstadt. It was located in the place where the Oder joins the German Spree. The name of the city is translated as "the city of iron factories". Since ancient times, there are many steelmaking plants here.
Frankfurt-on-Oder is in East Germany and on the river borders with the Polish Slubetsky. Since the XIX century, the old Prussian Frankfurt-on-Oder had a huge commercial value, it was in the middle of the road between Berlin and Poznan. In World War II, the fascists raided very badly, and after the war it was rebuilt. Now it looks more modern.
Fishing in Germany. Ecology
All the rivers flowing through Germany are just teeming with fish, but fishing here is not an easy task. It will not be possible to simply take a fishing pole and go ashore. Each fisherman must acquire a license, and only the one who has graduated from the non-expensive courses on fishing can pass it, passed the exams and received a certificate. Everyone should be in a club and fish only in certain, specially designated places. On private ponds you can go fishing for a fee, a license is not required here.
The rivers of Germany are considered the cleanest in Europe. Accuracy and pedantry of the Germans, their self-awareness made them so. The main problems arose during the existence of the GDR, then the construction of treatment facilities simply did not have enough funds. Now that environmentalists are sounding the alarm for any reason, the situation has straightened out, all the rivers in Germany have become much cleaner. In the Rhine, which used to be called the "sewage system of Europe," salmon, preferring clean fresh water, began to come in more and more often.