The first Russian Tsar Ivan the Terrible

Ivan the Terrible - the first Russian tsar, who in 1547 was officially crowned for reign.

In Moscow Prince Vasily III and Helen Glinsky in August 1530 was born the long-awaited son - their heir John. When Ivan was 3 years old, his father died and was brought up by his mother, who also died in 1538 when he was 8 years old. Ivan grew up surrounded by a struggle for the power of boyar families that were at enmity among themselves, surrounded by palace coups.

Violence, murder, intrigue made him suspicious, vindictive and cruel. Even when he was young, he already dreamed of unlimited power. And when Ivan became an adult in 1545, he became ruler of Russia. In 1547, January 16, in the Moscow Kremlin in the Assumption Cathedral was his wedding at the kingdom. The title "king" in translation means "emperor".

During his reign, the first Russian emperor Ivan IV carried out many reforms: zemstvo, church, judicial, decree, military. He carried out many innovations useful for the state, made orders - unified administrative bodies. During his reign, the Sudebnik was compiled - the statute of the laws of Russians. The first Russian king in domestic politics has greatly strengthened the state. He expanded the borders of Russia, conquering the Khanate of Kazan (1547-1552) and Astrakhan (1556), began penetrating Siberia. On the international arena, Russia's positions have become more and more strengthened.

In connection with the expansion of the territory of the Moscow State and the creation of an order system, economic and trade ties between the regions intensified. From the center to the north they brought bread, and from there - salt, furs, fish. During the reign of Ivan IV, trade began with Western Europe through Novgorod and Smolensk. Became more regular trade with England. Through the White and Barents Sea , the road from Britain to Russia was opened. The English trading house was founded in Moscow, and in 1584 the port of Arkhangelsk on the bank of the Dvinskaya Bay.

But the welfare of the kingdom was short-lived. The Livonian War (1558-1583) failed for Russia. In 1565 the first Russian Tsar Ivan IV created the oprichnina, and after that he was called the Terrible. Terror he wanted to assert his authority. And he did not even spare his son in this anger. Oprichinniki in 1569 plundered many Russian cities under the leadership of Ivan the Terrible.

The first Russian Tsar - Ivan Vasilyevich Grozny - one of the most educated people, he had a phenomenal memory, in theology was an erudite. He was the author of many messages. I wrote the text and music for the service to the feast of Vladimir's Mother of God, as well as the canon of Archangel Michael. In the organization of printing, he played a very important role. In Moscow on Red Square the construction of St. Basil's Cathedral was realized , the first tsar Ivan, was the initiator of its construction.

The activities of Ivan the Terrible received a multifaceted description in Russian history, because pre-revolutionary historians characterized it negatively, while the Soviets emphasized its positive aspects during the reign. And in the twentieth century, in the second half, historians began to study deeply the internal and foreign policies of Ivan the Terrible.

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