The First Chechen War
1994 was marked by such an event as the First Chechen War. The shaky balance reached in the very beginning of the 1990s was violated in 1993, at this time in Grozny and in Moscow the powers of parliaments were sharply curtailed, strengthening the presidential power. As a result, Chechnya split into clans by geography. An anti-Duda coalition was formed, under whose control the northern regions were located. In Moscow, the same events led to the taking of the White House.
The economic situation was unfavorable for Moscow. Then the idea arose that the First Chechen War could be a good incentive for development. At the same time, the relations between Russia and Chechnya were aggravated by the problem of transit of Caspian oil. The oil pipeline was supposed to be conducted on the territory of Chechnya, and it was extremely important for Moscow who will take the leadership.
In December 93, the Provisional Council of Chechnya is created, which is headed by Avtukhranov. The initiative for its creation came from Moscow, and in the media it was presented as a real alternative to the Dudayev regime. Preparation for military operations began in April 94th. The first Chechen war was about to begin.
At that time, a number of seizures of buses with hostages occurred. Terrorists demanded money, weapons and a helicopter. Bandits went to Chechnya, where they were successfully caught by Russian law enforcement agencies. Later, the Chechen leadership will be accused of deliberately organizing terrorist attacks.
In the summer of the 94th, the anti-Dudaev opposition became more active, among which also quarrels began. In August, the head of the Provisional Council Avturkhanov will ask Yeltsin to recognize this body as the only legitimate and to support him. A civil war broke out in Chechnya . But the opposing forces were equal. Neither side could prevail. This is how the First Chechen War began, the reasons of which lie in the field of political and economic benefits.
Then the Russian government provided 40 tanks for the storming of Grozny. The result of this operation was deplorable: the infantry from the local forces came under attack and was defeated, and the tanks reached the center of Grozny, where they were shot from grenade launchers. As a result, 50 Russian tankmen were captured, telling Russian security services about the operation. In addition, a lot of military equipment was lost, which was captured by the government Chechen army.
The captured tankmen were later returned during the negotiations. Russia had the opportunity and other disagreements to resolve peacefully, but the bet was made on the strength. In December 94 Russian troops began to enter Chechnya. The first Chechen war was unexpected for Russian soldiers, they were not ready to use weapons against local residents. But they everywhere met resistance. The eastern group was stopped by the Chechen-Akkins, in Ingushetia they stopped the Western group. Real fighting collisions began when troops had to break through settlements through force.
Without serious problems, the Mosdzk and Kizlyar factions fought. They did not interfere with the destroyed aviation, the landscape favored, the population was pro-Russian. As we approached Grozny, the Mozambican group faced resistance and was stuck in battle for settlements for a week.
Groupings surrounded Grozny, and on December 26, the leadership ordered the storming of the city. At the same time, the military leadership did not take into account the lesson with the tankmen, and the scenario of the event was practically repeated. Only several times more armored vehicles were used. The Chechens prepared for this turn. The armored vehicles again remained without cover and was shot by grenade launcher fire. The Western group was stopped, the eastern group managed to retreat. Terrible losses brought the northern grouping of the First Chechen War. Losses were 85 killed and 72 missing.
The northeastern group was surrounded and blocked, but the order to retreat was not given. Then the general grouping "North" was formed, which was headed by Rokhlin, and "West" under the command of Babichev. Both groups took the direction to the presidential palace. But the change of tactics did not have much effect. Long street battles began. The Chechens held Grozny, having reinforcements from the south. The presidential palace was not taken until three weeks later.
Gradually, the preponderance was on the Russian side. The new grouping blocked the city from the south, as a result of which the Chechens began to retreat. But the city was still not under the full control of the federal forces. A few days later, a week-long truce was announced.
The first Chechen war, the reasons for which were not so obvious, as they were represented by the media, drove the Russian troops to exhaustion. On February 20, military operations were resumed. Chechen troops gradually left the city, and the Russian army was unable to prevent them. After that, military actions flowed into the territory of Eastern and Western Chechnya.